Drs Bauer and Cauley have served as consultants for Pfizer and Astro Zeneca. All other authors have no conflict of interest.
Nulliparity and Fracture Risk in Older Women: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures†
Version of Record online: 1 MAY 2003
Copyright © 2003 ASBMR
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume 18, Issue 5, pages 893–899, May 2003
How to Cite
Hillier, T. A., Rizzo, J. H., Pedula, K. L., Stone, K. L., Cauley, J. A., Bauer, D. C. and Cummings, S. R. (2003), Nulliparity and Fracture Risk in Older Women: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. J Bone Miner Res, 18: 893–899. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.5.893
Presented in part at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research in Phoenix, AZ, October 12-16, 2001.
- Issue online: 2 DEC 2009
- Version of Record online: 1 MAY 2003
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 NOV 2002
- Manuscript Revised: 21 OCT 2002
- Manuscript Received: 19 JUL 2002
- 11986 Reproductive history and postmenopausal risk of hip and forearm fracture. Am J Epidemiol 124:262–267., , , ,
- 21994 Risk factors for fractures of the distal forearm: A population-based case-control study. Osteoporos Int 4:298–304., , ,
- 31996 Menstrual and reproductive factors and hip fractures in post menopausal women. Maturitas 24:191–196., , ,
- 41993 Parity, lactation and hip fracture. Osteoporos Int 3:171–176., , , ,
- 51981 Hip fracture in elderly women and reproductive history. J Gerontol 36:424–427.
- 61996 Nutrition and subsequent hip fracture risk among a national cohort of white women. Am J Epidemiol 144:124–134., ,
- 71997 Risk factors for hip fracture in a Japanese cohort. J Bone Miner Res 12:998–1004., , ,
- 82000 Risk factors for perimenopausal distal forearm fracture. Osteoporos Int 11:265–270., , , , ,
- 91993 Breastfeeding and other reproductive factors and the risk of hip fractures in elderly women. Int J Epidemiol 22:684–691.,
- 102000 Osteoporosis with vertebral fractures associated with pregnancy and lactation. Nutrition 16:1052–1055., , ,
- 111991 Exercise and other factors in the prevention of hip fracture: The Leisure World study. Epidemiology 2:16–25., , ,
- 121995 Effects of estrogen exposure and reproductive factors on bone mineral density and osteoporotic fractures. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:2709–2714., , , , ,
- 131993 Reproductive correlates of bone mass in elderly women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res 8:901–908., , , , ,
- 141994 Correlates of bone mineral density in the postmenopausal estrogen/progestin interventions trial. J Bone Miner Res 9:1467–1476., , , , ,
- 151996 Axial bone mass in older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 124:187–196., , ,
- 161995 Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 332:767–773., , , , ,
- 171992 Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65. J Bone Miner Res 7:625–632., , , ,
- 181992 The accuracy of self-report of fractures in elderly women: Evidence from a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 135:490–499., , , , ,
- 191993 The epidemiology of vertebral fractures. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group. Bone 14(Suppl 1):S89–S97., ,
- 201999 Defining incident vertebral deformity: A prospective comparison of several approaches. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res 14:90–101., , , , ,
- 211988 The assessment of historical physical activity and its relation to adult bone parameters. Am J Epidemiol 127:1053–1063., , , , ,
- 221987 Evaluation of two food frequency methods of measuring dietary calcium intake. Am J Epidemiol 126:796–802., , ,
- 231993 Factors associated with appendicular bone mass in older women. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 118:657–665., , , , ,
- 241984 A new contrast sensitivity vision test chart. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 61:403–407.
- 251950 The Perception of the Visual World. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, USA.
- 261993 Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet 341:72–75., , , , ,
- 271996 Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ 312:1254–1259., ,
- 281989 Applied Logistic Regression. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA.,
- 291995 Ovarian hormone synthesis and mechanism of action. In: DeGrootLJ (ed.) Endocrinology. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 2019–2030.,
- 301995 Placental Hormones. In: DeGrootLJ (ed.) Endocrinology. Sanders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 2171–2206., ,
- 311996 Pregnancy and lactation as risk factors for subsequent bone loss and osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 11:1052–1060.
- 321993 Changes in bone density with lactation. JAMA 269:3130–3135., , , , ,
- 332001 The effects of pregnancy and lactation on bone mineral density. Osteoporos Int 12:732–737., , ,
- 341995 Changes of bone mineral density in pregnant and postpartum women. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 21:419–425., , , , ,
- 35National Center for Health Statistics 2000 Median age of mother by live-birth order, according to race and Hispanic origin: US, selected years, 1940–97 National Vital Statistics Report 1, Natality. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.
- 36National Center for Health Statistics 2001 Percent distribution of women by parity, by exact age of woman, and race of child for women in each cohort from 1949 to 1983: United States, 1998 Vital Statistics of the United States, 1997 1, Natality. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.
- 37National Center for Health Statistics 1997 Live births, birth rates, and fertility rates, by race of child: United States, 1909–80. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.
- 38National Center for Health Statistics 1997 Fertility rates: United States, each division and State, 1980–97 Vital 1, Natality. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.
- 39National Vital Statistics Report 2001 Table 1. Live births, birth rates, and fertility rates, by race: United States, specified years 1940–55 and each year, 1960–99. 49 ed. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.
- 40U.S. Census Bureau 2000 Female population by race alone or in combination and age for the United States: 2000. Available at http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/phc-t9/tab06.pdf. Accessed on March 4, 2003.