• 1
    Papadimitropoulos EA, Coyte PC, Josse RG, Greenwood CE 1997 Current and projected rates of hip fracture in Canada. CMAJ 157:13571363.
  • 2
    Melton LJ III 1993 Hip fractures: A worldwide problem today and tomorrow. Bone 14(Suppl 1):S1S8.
  • 3
    Grisso JA, Kelsey JL, Strom BL, Chiu GY, Maislin G, O'Brien LA, Hoffman S, Kaplan F 1991 Risk factors for falls as a cause of hip fracture in women. The Northeast Hip Fracture Study Group. N Engl J Med 324:13261331.
  • 4
    McClung MR, Geusens P, Miller PD, Zippel H, Bensen WG, Roux C, Adami S, Fogelman I, Diamond T, Eastell R, Meunier PJ, Reginster JY 2001 Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group. N Engl J Med 344:333340.
  • 5
    Cummings SR, Nevitt MC 1989 A hypothesis: The causes of hip fractures. J Gerontol 44:M107M111.
  • 6
    Speechley M, Tinetti M 1991 Falls and injuries in frail and vigorous community elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 39:4652.
  • 7
    Nevitt MC, Cummings SR 1993 Type of fall and risk of hip and wrist fractures: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Am Geriatr Soc 41:12261234.
  • 8
    Schwartz AV, Kelsey JL, Sidney S, Grisso JA 1998 Characteristics of falls and risk of hip fracture in elderly men. Osteoporos Int 8:240246.
  • 9
    Greenspan SL, Myers ER, Maitland LA, Kido TH, Krasnow MB, Hayes WC 1994 Trochanteric bone mineral density is associated with type of hip fracture in the elderly. J Bone Miner Res 9:18891894.
  • 10
    Parkkari J, Kannus P, Palvanen M, Natri A, Vainio J, Aho H, Vuori I, Jarvinen M 1999 Majority of hip fractures occur as a result of a fall and impact on the greater trochanter of the femur: A prospective controlled hip fracture study with 206 consecutive patients. Calcif Tissue Int 65:183187.
  • 11
    Lotz JC, Hayes WC 1990 The use of quantitative computed tomography to estimate risk of fracture of the hip from falls. J Bone Joint Surg Am 72:689700.
  • 12
    Robinovitch SN, Hayes WC, McMahon TA 1997 Distribution of contact force during falls on the hip. Ann Biomed Eng 25:499508.
  • 13
    Courtney AC, Wachtel EF, Myers ER, Hayes WC 1995 Age-related reductions in the strength of the femur tested in a fall-loading configuration. J Bone Joint Surg Am 77:387395.
  • 14
    Hsiao ET, Robinovitch SN 1998 Common protective movements govern unexpected falls from standing height. J Biomech 31:19.
  • 15
    Robinovitch SN, Chiu J, Sandler R, Liu Q 2000 Impact severity in self-initiated sits and falls associates with center-of-gravity excursion during descent. J Biomech 33:863870.
  • 16
    Robinovitch SN, Hayes WC, McMahon TA 1991 Prediction of femoral impact forces in falls on the hip. J Biomech Eng 113:366374.
  • 17
    Gryfe CI, Amies A, Ashley MJ 1977 A longitudinal study of falls in an elderly population: I. Incidence and morbidity. Age Ageing 6:201210.
  • 18
    Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF 1988 Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med 319:17011707.
  • 19
    Sattin RW 1992 Falls among older persons: A public health perspective. Annu Rev Public Health 13:489508.
  • 20
    Palvanen M, Kannus P, Parkkari J, Pitkajarvi T, Pasanen M, Vuori I, Jarvinen M 2000 The injury mechanisms of osteoporotic upper extremity fractures among older adults: A controlled study of 287 consecutive patients and their 108 controls. Osteoporos Int 11:822831.
  • 21
    Praemar A, Furner S, Rice DP 1992 Costs of musculoskeletal conditions. In: Musculoskeletal Conditions on the United States. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Park Ridge, IL, USA, pp. 143170.
  • 22
    Smeesters C, Hayes WC, McMahon TA 2001 Disturbance type and gait speed affect fall direction and impact location. J Biomech 34:309317.
  • 23
    Winter DA 1990 Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. Wiley, New York, NY, USA.
  • 24
    Hayes WC, Myers ER, Morris JN, Gerhart TN, Yett HS, Lipsitz LA 1993 Impact near the hip dominates fracture risk in elderly nursing home residents who fall. Calcif Tissue Int 52:192198.
  • 25
    Robinovitch SN, McMahon TA, Hayes WC 1995 Force attenuation in trochanteric soft tissues during impact from a fall. J Orthop Res 13:956962.
  • 26
    Lauritzen JB, Askegaard V 1992 Protection against hip fractures by energy absorption. Dan Med Bull 39:9193.
  • 27
    van den Kroonenberg AJ, Hayes WC, McMahon TA 1995 Dynamic models for sideways falls from standing height. J Biomech Eng 117:309318.
  • 28
    Pinilla TP, Boardman KC, Bouxsein ML, Myers ER, Hayes WC 1996 Impact direction from a fall influences the failure load of the proximal femur as much as age-related bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int 58:231235.
  • 29
    Keyak JH, Skinner HB, Fleming JA 2001 Effect of force direction on femoral fracture load for two types of loading conditions. J Orthop Res 19:539544.
  • 30
    Ford CM, Keaveny TM, Hayes WC 1996 The effect of impact direction on the structural capacity of the proximal femur during falls. J Bone Miner Res 11:377383.
  • 31
    DeGoede KM, Ashton-Miller JA 2002 Fall arrest strategy affects peak hand impact force in a forward fall. J Biomech 35:843848.
  • 32
    Chou PH, Chou YL, Lin CJ, Su FC, Lou SZ, Lin CF, Huang GF 2001 Effect of elbow flexion on upper extremity impact forces during a fall. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 16:888894.