SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Dalsky GP, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, Slatopolsky E, Lee WC, Birge SJ Jr 1988 Weight-bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 108:824828.
  • 2
    Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sankelo M, Sievänen H, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1995 Effect of starting-age of physical activity on bone mass in the dominant arm of tennis and squash players. Ann Intern Med 123:2731.
  • 3
    Haapasalo H, Kontulainen S, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Järvinen M, Vuori I 2000 Exercise-induced bone gain is due to enlargement in bone size without a change in volumetric bone density: A peripheral quantitative computed tomography study of the upper arms of male tennis players. Bone 27:351357.
  • 4
    Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Oja P, Vuori I 1996 Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral mass and estimated mechanical characteristics of the upper limb bones in young women. J Bone Miner Res 11:490501.
  • 5
    Berard A, Bravo G, Gauthier P 1997 Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of physical activity for the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 7:331337.
  • 6
    Ernst E 1998 Exercise for female osteoporosis: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Sports Med 25:359368.
  • 7
    Haapasalo H, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Pasanen M, Uusi-Rasi K, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1998 Effect of long-term unilateral activity on bone mineral density of female junior tennis players. J Bone Mner Res 13:310319.
  • 8
    Seeman E 2002 An exercise in geometry. J Bone Miner Res 17:373380.
  • 9
    Khan KM, Green RM, Saul L, Bennell KL, Crichton KJ, Hopper JL, Wark JD 1996 Retired elite female ballet dancers and nonathletic controls have similar bone mineral density at weightbearing sites. J Bone Miner Res 11:15661574.
  • 10
    Khan KM, McKay HA, Haapasalo H, Bennell KL, Forwood MR, Kannus P, Wark JD 2000 Does childhood and adolescence provide a unique opportunity for exercise to strengthen the skeleton? J Sci Med Sport 3:150164.
  • 11
    MacKelvie KJ, Khan KM, McKay HA 2002 Is there a critical period for bone response to weight-bearing exercise in children and adolescents? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med 36:250257.
  • 12
    Rubin CT, Bain SD, McLeod KJ 1992 Suppression of the osteogenic response in the aging skeleton. Calcif Tissue Int 50:306313.
  • 13
    Klein-Nulend J, Sterck JG, Semeins CM, Lips P, Joldersma M, Baart JA, Burger E 2002 Donor age and mechanosensitivity of human bone cells. Osteoporos Int 13:137146.
  • 14
    Buhl KM, Jacobs CR, Turner RT, Evans GL, Farrell PA, Donahue HJ 2001 Aged bone displays an increased responsiveness to low-intensity resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 90:13591364.
  • 15
    Turner CH, Takano Y, Owan I 1995 Aging changes mechanical loading thresholds for bone formation in rats. J Bone Miner Res 10:15441549.
  • 16
    Raab DM, Smith EL, Crenshaw TD, Thomas DP 1990 Bone mechanical properties after exercise training in young and old rats. J Appl Physiol 68:130134.
  • 17
    Umemura Y, Ishiko T, Tsujimoto H, Miura H, Mokushi N, Suzuki H 1995 Effects of jump training on bone hypertrophy in young and old rats. Int J Sports Med 16:364367.
  • 18
    Forwood MR, Burr DB 1993 Physical activity and bone mass: Exercises in futility? Bone Miner 21:89112.
  • 19
    Kontulainen S, Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Oja P, Vuori I 1999 Changes in bone mineral content with decreased training in competitive young adult tennis players and controls: A prospective 4-yr follow-up. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:646652.
  • 20
    Kontulainen S, Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sievänen H, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 2001 Good maintenance of exercise-induced bone gain with decreased training of female tennis and squash players: A prospective 5-year follow-up study of young and old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res 16:195201.
  • 21
    Vuori I, Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Pasanen M, Oja P 1994 Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral density and content in young women: A study of mechanical loading and deloading on human bones. Calcif Tissue Int 55:5967.
  • 22
    Kannus P, Järvinen TLN, Sievänen H, Kvist M, Rauhaniemi J, Maunu V-M, Hurme T, Jozsa L, Järvinen M 1996 Effects of immobilization, three forms of remobilization and subsequent deconditioning on bone mineral content and density in rat femora. J Bone Miner Res 11:13391346.
  • 23
    Pajamäki I, Kannus P, Vuohelainen T, Sievänen H, Tuukkanen J, Järvinen M, Järvinen TLN 2003 The bone gain induced by exercise in puberty is not preserved through a virtually life-long deconditioning? A randomized controlled experimental study in male rats. J Bone Miner Res 18:544552.
  • 24
    Järvinen TLN, Kannus P, Pajamäki I, Vuohelainen T, Tuukkanen J, Järvinen M, Sievänen H 2002 Estrogen deposits extra mineral into bones of female rats in puberty, but simultaneously seems to suppress the responsiveness of female skeleton to mechanical loading. J Bone Miner Res 17:S1;S137.
  • 25
    Sedlin ED, Hirsch C 1966 Factors affecting the determination of the physical properties of the femoral cortical bone. Acta Orthop Scand 37:2948.
  • 26
    Pelker RR, Friedlaender G, Markham TC, Panjabi MM, Moen CJ 1984 Effects of freezing and freeze-drying on the biomechanical properties of rat bone. J Orthop Res 1:405411.
  • 27
    Järvinen TLN, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Järvinen M 1998 Dual-energy absorptiometry in predicting the mechanical characteristics of rat femur. Bone 23:551558.
  • 28
    Järvinen TLN, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Jolma P, Heinonen A, Järvinen M 1998 Randomized controlled study of effects of sudden impact loading on rat femur. J Bone Miner Res 13:14751482.
  • 29
    Søgaard CH, Danielsen CC, Thorling EB, Mosekilde L 1994 Long-term exercise of young and adult female rats: Effect on femoral neck biomechanical competence and bone structure. J Bone Miner Res 9:409416.
  • 30
    Biewener AA 1991 Musculoskeletal design in relation to body size. J Biomech 24(Suppl 1):1929.
  • 31
    Burr DB 1997 Muscle strength, bone mass, and age-related bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 12:15471551.
  • 32
    Dehority W, Halloran BP, Bikle DD, Curren T, Kostenuik PJ, Wronski TJ, Shen Y, Rabkin B, Abderrahman B, Morey-Holton E 1999 Bone and hormonal changes induced by skeletal unloading in the mature male rat. Am J Physiol 276:E62E69.
  • 33
    Parfitt AM 1994 The two faces of growth: Benefits and risks to bone integrity. Osteoporos Int 4:382398.
  • 34
    Ashizawa N, Nonaka K, Michikami S, Mizuki T, Amagai H, Tokuyama K, Suzuki M 1999 Tomographical description of tennis-loaded radius: Reciprocal relation between bone size and volumetric BMD. J Appl Physiol 86:13471351.
  • 35
    Pitts GC 1984 Body composition in the rat: Interactions of exercise, age, sex, and diet. Am J Physiol 246:R495R501.
  • 36
    Cortright RN, Chandler MP, Lemon PW, DiCarlo SE 1997 Daily exercise reduces fat, protein and body mass in male but not female rats. Physiol Behav 62:105111.
  • 37
    Frost HM 1997 On our age-related bone loss: Insights from a new paradigm. J Bone Miner Res 12:15391546.
  • 38
    van der Meulen MCH, Jepsen KJ, Mikic B 2001 Understanding bone strength: Size isn't everything. Bone 29:101104.
  • 39
    Biewener AA, Bertram JEA 1994 Structural response of growing bone to exercise and disuse. J Appl Physiol 76:946955.
  • 40
    Kannus P, Sievänen H, Järvinen TLN, Järvinen M, Kvist M, Oja P, Vuori I, Jozsa L 1994 Effects of free mobilization and low- to high-intensity treadmill running on the immobilization-induced bone loss in rats. J Bone Miner Res 9:16131619.
  • 41
    Järvinen TLN, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Jozsa L, Heinonen OJ, Vieno T, Järvinen M 2001 Effects of remobilisation on rat femur are dose-dependent. Scand J Med Sci Sports 11:292298.
  • 42
    Jämsä T, Koivukangas A, Ryhänen J, Jalovaara P, Tuukkanen J 1999 Femoral neck is a sensitive indicator of bone loss in immobilized hind limb of mouse. J Bone Miner Res 14:17081713.