SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Einhorn TA, Majeska RJ, Rush EB, Levine PM, Horowitz MC 1995 The expression of cytokine activity by fracture callus. J Bone Miner Res 10:12721281.
  • 2
    Barnes GL, Kostenuik PJ, Gerstenfeld LC, Einhorn TA 1999 Growth factor regulation of fracture repair. J Bone Miner Res 11:18051815.
  • 3
    Kon T, Cho TJ, Aizawa T, Yamazaki M, Nooh N, Graves D, Gerstenfeld LC, Einhorn TA 2001 Expression of osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (osteoprotegerin ligand) and related proinflammatory cytokines during fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res 16:10041014.
  • 4
    Einhorn TA 1998 The cell and molecular biology of fracture healing. Clin Orthop 355S:S7S21.
  • 5
    Ferguson C, Alpern E, Miclau T, Helms JA 1999 Does adult fracture repair recapitulate embryonic skeletal formation? Mech Dev 87:5766.
  • 6
    Buckwalter JA, Einhorn TA, Bolander ME, Cruess RL 1996 Healing of the musculoskeletal tissues. In: RockwoodCAJr, GreenDP (ed.) Fractures in Adults, 4th ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 261304.
  • 7
    Feghali CA, Wright TM 1997 Cytokines in acute and chronic inflammation. Front Biosci 2:1226.
  • 8
    Wallach D, Varfolemeev EE, Malinin N, Goltsev YV, Kovalenko AV, Boldin MP 1999 Tumor necrosis factor receptor and fas signaling mechanisms. Annu Rev Immunol 17:331367.
  • 9
    Bazzoni F, Beutler B 1996 The tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor family. N Engl J Med 334:17171725.
  • 10
    Bertolini DR, Nedwin GE, Bringma TS, Smith DD, Mundy GR 1986 Stimulation of bone resorption and inhibition of bone formation in vitro by human tumor necrosis factor. Nature 319:516518.
  • 11
    Kimble RB, Bain S, Pacifici R 1997 The functional block of TNF but not IL-6 prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice. J Bone Miner Res 12:935941.
  • 12
    Nagata S 1997 Apoptosis by death factor. Cell 88:356365.
  • 13
    Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ 2001 The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: Integrating mammalian biology. Cell 104:487501.
  • 14
    Simonet WS, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR, Kelley M, Chang M-S, Lüthy R, Nguyen HQ, Wooden S, Bennett L, Boone T, Shimamoto G, DeRose M, Elliott R, Colombero A, Tan H-L, Trail G, Sullivan J, Davy E, Bucay N, Renshaw-Gegg L, Hughes TM, Hill D, Pattison W, Campbell P, Sander S, Van G, Tarpley J, Derby P, Lee R, Boyle WJ 1997 Osteoprotegerin: A novel secreted protein involved in the regulation of bone density. Cell 89:309319.
  • 15
    Lacey DL, Timms E, Tan HL, Kelley MJ, Dunstan CR, Burgess T, Elliott R, Colombero A, Elliott G, Scully S, Hsu H, Sullivan J, Hawkins N, Davy E, Capparelli C, Eli A, Qian YX, Kaufman S, Sarosi I, Shalhoub V, Senaldi G, Guo J, Delaney J, Boyle WJ 1998 Osteoprotogerin ligand is a cytokine that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation. Cell 93:165176.
  • 16
    Bucay N, Sarosi I, Dunstan CR, Morony S, Tarpley J, Capparelli C, Scully S, Tan HL, Xu W, Lacey DL, Boyle WJ, Simonet WS 1998 Osteoprotegerin-deficient mice develop early onset osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Genes Dev 12:12601268.
  • 17
    Aizawa T, Kon T, Einhorn TA, Gerstenfeld LC 2001 Induction of apoptosis in chondrocytes by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Orthop Res 19:785796.
  • 18
    Peschon JJ, Torrance DS, Stocking KL, Glaccum MB, Otten C, Willis CR, Charrier K, Morrissey PJ, Ware CB, Mohler KM 1998 TNF receptor-deficient mice reveal divergent roles in several models of inflammation. J Immunol 160:5575.
  • 19
    Bonnarens F, Einhorn TA 1984 Production of a standard closed fracture in laboratory animal bone. J Orthop Res 2:97101.
  • 20
    Gerstenfeld LC, Landis WJ 1991 Gene expression and extracellular matrix ultrastructure of a mineralizing chondrocyte cell culture system. Cell Biol 112:501513.
  • 21
    Ranger A, Gerstenfeld LC, Wang JX, Kon T, Gravallese EM, Bae H, Glimcher MJ, Glimcher LH 2000 The transcription factor NAFTp is a repressor of chondrogenesis. J Exp Med 191:922.
  • 22
    Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Laboratory 1992 In: ProphetEB, MillsB, ArringtonJB, SobinLH (eds.) Methods in Histotechnology. American Registry of Pathology. The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
  • 23
    Xu X, Toselli PA, Russell LD, Seldin DC 1999 Globozoopermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II α catalytic subunit. Nat Genet 23:1821.
  • 24
    Toma C, Schaffer J, Meazzini MC, Zurakowski D, Nah HD, Gerstenfeld LC 1997 Developmental restriction of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells as characterized by their in vitro potential for differentiation. J Bone Miner Res 12:20242039.
  • 25
    Sandell LJ, Nalin AM, Reife RA 1994 Alternative splice form of type II procollagen mRNA (IIA) is predominant in skeletal precursors and non-cartilaginous tissues during early mouse development. Dev Dyn 199:129140.
  • 26
    Mannick JA, Rodrick ML, Lederer JA 2001 The immunologic response to injury. J Am Coll Surg 193:237244.
  • 27
    Warren JS 1990 Interleukins and tumor necrosis factor in inflammation. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 28:3759.
  • 28
    Kanegae Y, Tavares AT, Izpisua Belmonte JC, Verma IM 1988 Role of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors during the outgrowth of the vertebrate limb. Nature 392:611614.
  • 29
    Gibson GJ, Kohler WJ, Schaffler MB 1995 Chondrocyte apoptosis in endochondral ossification of chick sterna. Dev Dyn 203:468476.
  • 30
    Roach HI, Erenpreisa J, Aigner T 1995 Osteogenic differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes involves asymmetric cell divisions and apoptosis. J Cell Biol 131:483494.
  • 31
    Young-in-Lee F, Choi YW, Behrens FF, DeFeuw DO, Einhorn TA 1998 Programmed removal of chondrocytes during endochondral fracture healing. J Orthop Res 6:144149.
  • 32
    Feldmann M, Brennan FM, Maini RN 1996 Role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Annu Rev Immunol 14:397440.
  • 33
    Hashimoto S, Setareh M, Ochs R, Lotz M 1997 Fas/Fas ligand expression and induction of apoptosis in chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum 40:17491755.
  • 34
    Komuro H, Olee T, Kuhn K, Quach J, Brinson DC, Shikhman A, Valbracht J, Creighton-Achermann L, Lotz M 2001 The osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand system in cartilage. Arthritis Rheum 44:27682776.
  • 35
    Kim N, Odgren PR, Kim DK, Marks SC Jr, Choi Y 2000 Diverse roles of the tumor necrosis factor family member TRANCE in skeletal physiology revealed by TRANCE deficiency and partial rescue by a lymphocyte-expressed TRANCE transgene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:1090510910.
  • 36
    Schipani E, Ryan HE, Didrickson S, Kobayashi T, Knight M, Johnson RS 2001 Hypoxia in cartilage: HIF-1alpha is essential for chondrocyte growth arrest and survival. Genes Dev 15:28652876.
  • 37
    Gerstenfeld LC, Cruceta J, Shea CM, Sampath K, Barnes GL, Einhorn TA 2002 Chondrocytes provide morphogenic signals that selectively induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Bone Miner Res 17:221230.
  • 38
    Gerstenfeld LC, Shapiro F 1996 Expression of bone specific genes by hypertrophic chondrocytes: Implications of a complex functionality for the growth plate. J Cell Biochem 62:19.
  • 39
    Chung UI, Schipani E, McMahon AP, Kronenberg HMJ 2001 Indian hedgehog couples chondrogenesis to osteogenesis in endochondral bone development. Clin Invest 107:295304.