SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Wahner HW, Riggs BL 1993 Long-term fracture prediction by bone mineral assessed at different skeletal sites. J Bone Miner Res 8:12271233.
  • 2
    Anonymous 1993 Consensus development conference: Diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med 94:646650.
  • 3
    The World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group 1994 Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. In: Technical Report Series 843. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 4
    Moro M, Hecker AT, Bouxsein ML, Myers ER 1995 Failure load of thoracic vertebrae correlates with lumbar bone mineral density measured by DXA. Calcif Tissue Int 56:206209.
  • 5
    Kleerekoper M, Villanueva AR, Stanciu J, Rao DS, Parfitt AM 1985 The role of three-dimensional trabecular microstructure in the pathogenesis of vertebral compression fractures. Calcif Tissue Int 37:594597.
  • 6
    Duan Y, Parfitt AM, Seeman E 1999 Vertebral bone mass, size and volumetric density in women with spinal fractures. J Bone Miner Res 14:17961802.
  • 7
    Lanyon L, Skerry T 2001 Postmenopausal osteoporosis as a failure of bone's adaptation to functional loading: A hypothesis. J Bone Miner Res 16:19371947.
  • 8
    Urist MR, MacDonald NS, Moss MJ, Skoog WA 1963 Rarefying disease of the skeleton: Observations Dealing with Aged and Dead Bone in Patients with Osteoporosis. In: SognnaesRF (ed.) Mechanisms of Hard Tissue Destruction. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 385446.
  • 9
    Frost HM 1973 Bone Remodeling and Its Relationship to Metabolic Bone Diseases. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, MO, USA.
  • 10
    Parfitt AM, Mathews CHE, Villanueva AR, Rao DS, Rogers M, Kleerekoper M, Frame B 1983 Microstructural and cellular basis of age related bone loss and osteoporosis. In: FrameB, PottsJTJr (eds.) Clinical Disorders of Bone Miner Metabolism. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 328332.
  • 11
    Frost HM 1997 Osteoporoses: Their nature, and therapeutic targets (insights from a new paradigm). In: WhitfieldJ, MorelyP (eds.) Anabolic Treatments of Osteoporosis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 129.
  • 12
    Frost HM 1967 An Introduction to Biomechanics. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, MO, USA.
  • 13
    Currey J 1984 The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
  • 14
    Mori S, Burr DB 1993 Increased intracortical remodeling following fatigue damage. Bone 14:103109.
  • 15
    Verborgt O, Gibson GJ, Schaffler MB 2000 Loss of osteocyte integrity in association with microdamage and bone remodeling after fatigue in vivo. J Bone Miner Res 15:6067.
  • 16
    ChernowBA, VallasiGA (eds.) 1993 The Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th ed. Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 927928.
  • 17
    Burr DB, Forwood MR, Fyhrie DP, Martin RB, Schaffler MB, Turner CH 1997 Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures. J Bone Miner Res 12:615.
  • 18
    Kimmel DB, Recker RR, Gallagher JC, Vaswani AS, Aloia JF 1990 A comparison of iliac bone histomorphometric data in postmenopausal osteoporotic and normal subjects. Bone Miner 11:217235.
  • 19
    Foldes J, Parfitt AM, Shih M-S, Rao DS, Kleerekoper M 1991 Structural and geometric changes in iliac bone: Relationship to normal aging and osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 6:759766.
  • 20
    Parfitt AM, Kleerekoper M, Villanueva AR 1987 Increased bone age: Mechanisms and consequences. In: ChristiansenC, JohansenC, RilsBJ (eds.) Osteoporosis. Osteopress ApS, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 301308.
  • 21
    Qiu S, Rao DS, Palnitkar S, Parfitt AM 2002 Age and distance from the surface but not menopause reduce osteocyte density in human cancellous bone. Bone 31:313318.
  • 22
    Kleerekoper M, Peterson E, Nelson DA, Phillips E, Schork MA, Tilley BC, Parfitt AM 1991 A randomized trial of sodium fluoride as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1:155161.
  • 23
    Kleerekoper M, Parfitt AM, Ellis BI 1984 Measurement of vertebral fracture rates in osteoporosis. In: Christiansen C, Arnaud CD, Nordin BEC, Parfitt AM, Peck WA, Riggs BL (eds.) Osteoporosis. Aalborg Stiftsbogtrykkeri, pp. 103109.
  • 24
    Parfitt AM, Duncan H 1982 Metabolic bone disease affecting the spine. In: RothmanR, SimeoneF (eds.) The Spine, 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 775905.
  • 25
    Han Z-H, Palnitkar S, Rao DS, Nelson D, Parfitt AM 1996 Effect of ethnicity and age or menopause on the structure and geometry of iliac bone. J Bone Miner Res 11:19671975.
  • 26
    Kleerekoper M, Nelson DA, Peterson EL, Flynn MJ, Pawluszka AS, Jacobsen G, Wilson P 1994 Reference data for bone mass, calciotropic hormones, and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in older (55–75) postmenopausal white and black women. J Bone Miner Res 9:12671276.
  • 27
    Rao DS 1983 Practical approach to bone biopsy. In: ReckerRR (ed.) Bone Histomorphometry: Techniques and Interpretation. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 311.
  • 28
    Parfitt AM, Podenphant J, Villanueva AR, Frame B 1985 Metabolic bone disease with and without osteomalacia after intestinal bypass surgery: A bone histomorphometric study. Bone 6:211220.
  • 29
    Hanley JA, McNeil BJ 1982 The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology 143:2936.
  • 30
    Qiu S, Rao DS, Palnitkars S, Parfitt AM 2002 Relationships between osteocyte density and bone formation rate in human cancellous bone. Bone 31:709711.
  • 31
    Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR, Foldes J, Rao DS 1995 Relations between histologic indices of bone formation: Implications for the pathogenesis of spinal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 10:466473.
  • 32
    Mullender MG, Van Der Meer DD, Huiskes R, Lips P 1996 Osteocyte density changes in aging and osteoporosis. Bone 18:109113.
  • 33
    Bergot C, Laval-Jeantet AM, Hutchinson K, Dautraix I, Caulin F, Genant HK 2001 A comparison of spinal quantitative computed tomography with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in European women with vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. Calcif Tissue Int 68:7482.
  • 34
    Kroger H, Lunt M, Reeve J, Dequeker J, Adams JE, Birkenhager JC, Diaz Curier M, Felsenberg D, Hyldstrup L, Kotzki P, Laval-Jeantet A, Lips P, Louis O, Perez Cano R, Reiners C, Ribot C, Ruegsegger P, Schneider P, Braillon P, Pearson J 1999 Bone density reduction in various measurement sites in men and women with osteoporotic fractures of the spine and hips: The European quantitation of osteoporosis study. Calcif Tissue Int 64:191199.
  • 35
    Parfitt AM, Travers R, Rauch F, Glorieux FH 2000 Structural and cellular changes during bone growth in healthy children. Bone 27:487494.
  • 36
    Marotti G, Ferretti M, Muglia MA, Palumbo C, Palazzini S 1992 A quantitative evaluation of osteoblast-osteocyte relationships on growing endosteal surface of rabbit tibiae. Bone 13:363368.
  • 37
    Parfitt AM 1990 Bone-forming cells in clinical conditions. In: HallBK (ed.) Bone: A Treatise, Vol. 1. Telford Press, Caldwell, NJ, USA, pp. 351429.
  • 38
    Noble BS, Reeve J 2000 Osteocyte function, osteocyte death and bone fracture resistance. Mol Cell Endocrinol 159:713.
  • 39
    Karsdal MA, Larsen L, Engsig MT, Lou H, Ferreras M, Lochter A, Delaisse JM, Foged NT 2002 Matrix metalloproteinase-dependent activation of latent TGF-β controls the conversion of osteoblasts into osteocytes by blocking osteoblast apoptosis. J Biol Chem 277:4406144067.
  • 40
    Vernon-Roberts B, Pirie CJ 1973 Healing trabecular microfractures in the bodies of lumbar vertebrae. Ann Rheum Dis 32:406412.
  • 41
    Hansson T, Roos B 1981 Microcalluses of the trabeculae in lumbar vertebrae and their relation to the bone mineral content. Spine 6:375380.
  • 42
    Fyhrie DP, Schaffler B 1994 Failure mechanisms in human vertebral cancellous bone. Bone 15:105109.
  • 43
    Currey JD 1984 Effects of differences in mineralization on the mechanical properties of bone. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 304:509518.
  • 44
    Hernandez CJ, Bcaupre GS, Keller TS, Carter DR 2001 The influence of bone volume fraction and ash fraction on bone strength and modulus. Bone 29:7478.
  • 45
    Weinstein RS, Powers CC, Parfitt AM, Manolagas SC 2002 Preservation of osteocyte viability by bisphosphonates contributes to bone strength in glucocorticoid-treated mice independently of BMD: An unappreciated determinant of bone strength. J Bone Miner Res 17:S156.