• 1
    Schafer J, Caetano R and Clark CL, Rates of intimate partner violence in the United States, American Journal of Public Health, 1998, 88(11):17021704.
  • 2
    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Statistics, Intimate partner violence in the U.S., <>, accessed Mar. 13, 2009.
  • 3
    Cunradi CB et al., Neighborhood poverty as a predictor of intimate partner violence among white, black, and Hispanic couples in the United States: a multilevel analysis, Annals of Epidemiology2000, 10(5):297308.
  • 4
    Staggs SL and Riger S, Effects of intimate partner violence on low-income women's health and employment, American Journal of Community Psychology, 2005, 36(1–2):133145.
  • 5
    Stueve A and O'Donnell L, Urban young women's experiences of discrimination and community violence and intimate partner violence, Journal of Urban Health, 2008, 85(3):386401.
  • 6
    Ventura SJ et al., Estimated pregnancy rates by outcome for the United States, 1990–2004, National Vital Statistics Reports, 2005, Vol. 56, No. 15.
  • 7
    Singh S, Darroch JE and Frost JJ, Socioeconomic disadvantages and adolescent women's sexual and reproductive behavior, Family Planning Perspectives, 2001, 33(6):251259.
  • 8
    Phillips S, Violence and abortions: what's a doctor to do? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2005, 172(5):652654.
  • 9
    Jones RK et al., Abortion in the United States: incidence and access to services, 2005, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2008, 40(1):616.
  • 10
    Jones RK, Darroch JE and Henshaw SK, Patterns in the socioeconomic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in 2000–2001, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2002, 34(5):226235.
  • 11
    Coker AL et al., Physical health consequences of physical and psychological intimate partner violence, Archives of Family Medicine, 2000, 9(5):451457.
  • 12
    Roche KM et al., Early entry into adult roles: associations with aggressive behavior from early adolescence into young adulthood, Youth & Society, 2006, 38(2):236261.
  • 13
    O'Donnell L, Stueve A and Wilson-Simmons R, Middle school aggressive behavior and subsequent intimate partner physical violence, Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 2006, 35(5):693703.
  • 14
    O'Donnell L et al., Middle school aggression and subsequent intimate partner physical violence, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2006, 35(5):693703.
  • 15
    Ehrensaft MK et al., Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: a 20-year prospective study, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2003, 71(4):741753.
  • 16
    Wekerle C, Dating violence in mid-adolescence: theory, significance and emerging prevention initiatives, Clinical Psychology Review, 1999, 19(4):435456.
  • 17
    O'Leary KD and Smith Slep AM, A dyadic longitudinal model of adolescent dating aggression, Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2003, 32(3):314327.
  • 18
    Smith PH, White JW and Holland LJ, A longitudinal perspective on dating violence among adolescent and college-age women, American Journal of Public Health, 2003, 93(7):11041109.
  • 19
    Howard DE and Wang MQ, Psychosocial factors associated with adolescent boys' reports of dating violence, Adolescence, 2003, 38(151):519533.
  • 20
    Morse BJ, Beyond the Conflict Tactics Scale: assessing gender differences in partner violence, Violence and Victimization, 1995, 10(4):251272.
  • 21
    Milan S et al., Relationship violence among adolescent mothers: frequency, dyadic nature, and implications for relationship dissolution and mental health, Psychology Women's Quarterly, 2005, 29(3):302312.
  • 22
    Campbell JC, Helping women understand their risk in situations of intimate partner violence, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2004(19):14641477.
  • 23
    Moore M, Reproductive health and intimate partner violence, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(6):302306.
  • 24
    Coker AL, Does physical intimate partner violence affect sexual health? a systematic review, Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 2007, 8(2):149177.
  • 25
    Finer LB and Henshaw SK, Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, 1994 and 2001, Perspectives on Reproductive and Sexual Health, 2006, 38(2):9096.
  • 26
    Pallitto CC, Campbell JC and O'Campo P, Is intimate partner violence associated with unintended pregnancy? a review of the literature, Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 2005, 6(3):217235.
  • 27
    Bourassa D and Bérubé J, The prevalence of intimate partner violence among women and teenagers seeking abortion compared with those continuing pregnancy, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 2007, 29(5):415423.
  • 28
    Gazmararian JA et al., The relationship between pregnancy intendedness and physical violence in mothers of newborns: the PRAMS Working Group, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 1995, 85(6):10311038.
  • 29
    Nelson DB et al., Violence does not influence early pregnancy loss, Fertility & Sterility, 2003, 80(5):12051211.
  • 30
    Morland LA et al., Intimate partner violence and miscarriage: examination of the role of physical and psychological abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2008, 23(5):652669.
  • 31
    Silverman JG et al., Intimate partner violence victimization prior to and during pregnancy among women residing in 26 U.S. states: associations with maternal and neonatal health, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2006, 195(1):140148.
  • 32
    Blake SM et al., Pregnancy intentions and happiness among pregnant black women at high risk for adverse infant health outcomes, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2007, 39(4):194205.
  • 33
    Miller E et al., Male partner pregnancy-promoting behaviors and adolescent partner violence: findings from a qualitative study with adolescent females, Ambulatory Pediatrics, 2007, 7(5):360366.
  • 34
    O'Donnell L et al., Risk and resiliency factors influencing suicidality among urban African American and Latino youth, American Journal of Community Psychology, 2004, 33(1–2):3749.
  • 35
    Coker AL et al., Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2002, 23(4):260268.
  • 36
    Straus MA, Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: the Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales, in: StrausMA and GellesRJ, eds. Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8145 Families, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1990, pp. 2947.
  • 37
    Gazmararian JA et al., Violence and reproductive health: current knowledge and future research directions, Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2000, 4(2):7984.
  • 38
    National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, Unplanned pregnancy in the U.S., 2006, <>, accessed Mar. 13, 2009.
  • 39
    Family Violence Prevention Fund, Domestic violence is a serious, widespread social problem in America: the facts, 2009, <>, 2008, accessed Mar. 13, 2009.
  • 40
    Whitaker DJ et al., Differences in frequency of violence and reported injury between relationships with reciprocal and nonreciprocal intimate partner violence, American Journal of Public Health, 2007, 97(5):941947.
  • 41
    Watson N and Wooden M, Modeling longitudinal survey response: the experience of the HILDA survey, paper presented at the ACSPRI Social Science Methodology Conference, Sydney, Australia, Dec. 10–13, 2006.
  • 42
    Global Assessment Programme on Drug Abuse, Conducting school surveys on drug abuse, toolkit 3, 2003, United Nations,, accessed Mar. 13, 2009.
  • 43
    Goodwin MM et al., Pregnancy intendedness and physical abuse around the time of pregnancy: findings from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 1996–1997, Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2000, 4(2):8592.