Data from a nationally representative sample of 5,238 U.S. adults were used to examine the extent to which physical assault victimization was associated with suicidal ideation or behavior (SIB). The results from multivariable logistic regression analyses indicate that physical assault victimization was positively associated with SIB after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use (OR = 3.6; 95% CI = 2.4–5.5). Those who were injured during the most recent physical assault (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.2–6.0) and those who were assaulted by a relative (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.0–11.0) or intimate partner (OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 2.7–22.5) were significantly more like to report SIB than victims who were not injured or were assaulted by a stranger. Also, those who were victimized but not injured (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 3.8–8.2) and those who were victimized by a stranger (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.4–6.0) were more likely to report SIB than non-victims. These results highlight the need for legal, medical, mental health, and social service providers to address the co-occurrence of violent victimization and suicidal ideation, particularly, but not exclusively, victimization by family members and intimates.