The relationship between childhood diagnosis, personality psychopathology and suicidal behavior in young adulthood was explored in a sample of 327 suicide ideators, single attempters, and multiple attempters. Of the total sample, 174 received at least one childhood diagnosis; the 153 without a diagnosis provided a comparison group. Results suggest that a childhood history of an anxiety disorder or major depression predispose a person to both later multiple suicide attempts and personality psychopathology. Gender was found to play a significant role, with females being predisposed to multiple attempts in young adulthood but only as a function of childhood anxiety, not major depression. Additionally, childhood anxiety disorders were found to predispose to multiple attempts as a function of personality psychopathology, with distinctly different paths for males and females. Implications are discussed in terms of etiology, prevention, and treatment.