1 This material was collected in 1936-37 in the Yaqui villages of Arizona, while making an ethnological study under the auspices of the Department of Anthropology of the University of Chicago. The writer wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. Fay-Cooper Cole and other menbers of the department for their aid in this work.
LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF YAQUI ACCULTURATION
Article first published online: 28 OCT 2009
1943 American Anthropological Association
Volume 45, Issue 3, pages 410–426, July-September 1943
How to Cite
Spicer, E. H. (1943), LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF YAQUI ACCULTURATION. American Anthropologist, 45: 410–426. doi: 10.1525/aa.1943.45.3.02a00060
- Issue published online: 28 OCT 2009
- Article first published online: 28 OCT 2009
2 Ralph Linton (Editor), Acculturation in Seven American Indian Tribes (New York, 1940), p. 501.
3 Andres Perez de Ribas, Historia de los Triumphos de Novestra Santa Fee, en los Missiones de la Provincia de Nueva España (Madrid, 1645), pp. 283 ff.
4 Herbert K. Bolton, Rim of Christendom (New York, 1927), pp. 202, 228.
5 H. H. Bancroft, History of Texas and the North Mexican States (San Francisco, 1885, Vol. II), pp. 650-651.
6 H. H. Bancroft, ibid., pp. 653, 663. See also Francisco P. Troncoso, Las Guerras con las Tri-bus Yaqui y Mayo del Estado de Sonora (Mexico, 1905), passim.
7 Fortunato Hernandez, Las Razas Indigenas de Sonora y la Guerra del Yaqui (Mexico, 1902), pp. 123-128.
8 See Alfonso Fabila, Las Tribus Yaquis de Sonora (Mexico, 1940), for an interesting account of the directed culture change.
9 See, e.g., Mauricio Swadesh, Orientaciones linguisticas para maestros en zonas indigenas (Mexico, 1940).
10 Language (New York, 1933), p. 455.,
11 Edward H. Spicer, Pascua. A Yaqui Village in Arizona (Chicago, 1940), p. 65.
12 Wendell C. Bennett and Robert M. Zingg, The Tarahumara. Chicago, 1935, pp. 300-302.
13 Cf. the Papago term for civil head of a village, kobanát.
14 See, e.g., D. F. Pimentel, Cuadro Descriptivo y Comparativo de las Lenguas Indigenes de Mexico, Vol. II (Mexico, 1862).
15 H. K. Bolton, Wider Horizons of American History (New York, 1939), p. 160.
16 Cf. Bennett and Zingg, op. cit., p. 304, and also R. M. Zingg, The Huichols: Primitive Artists (New York, 1938), p. 12.
17 The contraction of -ado to -au is common in Mexican Spanish of Sonora.
18 Diccionario etimológico de castellano (Madrid, 1918).
19 See Lincoln Kirstein, Dance (New York, 1935), pp. 95 and 161.
20 See, e.g., Mary Austin, Folk Plays of the Southwest (Theatre Arts Monthly, Vol. xvii, No. 8), p. 603.
21 It is important to note in this connection that the Jesuits spoke of themselves as “soldiers of the militia of the company of Jesus.” See, e.g., Andres Perez de Ribas, op. cit., passim.
22 The recordings are deposited in the Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
23 The writer has been aided in the preparation of this section by discussions with Prof. Wm. Kurath of the University of Arizona and Mr. J. B. Johnson of the University of California.
24 See also J. B. Johnson, El Idioma Yaqui. This unpublished ms. contains a brief consideration of phonetic shifts. The transcription for Yaqui worked out by Johnson and Dr. Morris Swadesh in 1939-40 has been used throughout in the present paper.
25 Cf. Charles Wisdom, The Chorti Indians of Guatemala (Chicago, 1940), p. 33.
26 E. H. Spicer, op. cit., p. 90. mála may be a loan-word derived from Sp. madre. If it is, it is the only early borrowing in the kinship terminology, and it is more prominent as a respect than a purely kin term.
27 Edward H. Spicer, Yaqui-Pueblo Parallels in Ceremonial Organization (unpublished paper read before American Association for the Advancement of Science, Southwestern Division, Sec. H, April, 1940, Tucson, Arizona.