Revised version of a paper read at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Society, 1955. This study is part of the writer's unpublished doctoral thesis, “Grandparents and grandchildren: a sociological and psychological study of their relationship” (Radcliffe College, 1954). Professor G. C. Homans directed this thesis and it owes much to his guidance. The research was done while the writer was Research Associate in Sociology in the Geriatrics Unit of the Harvard School of Public Health. The Unit was supported by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation.