M. L. Burstein, Robert Clower, Ronald Cohen, George Delehanty, Mitchell Harwitz, Sidney Mintz, and A. A. Walters made critical comments on an earlier draft. I am grateful to these anthropologists and economists, and to Heyward Ehrlich who suggested changes in style and presentation. I must acknowledge separately the kindness of Paul Bohannan and Karl Polanyi, both of whom read several drafts and insisted on improvement. Much of the paper is an elaboration of ideas contained in Polanyi's lectures and writings.