The data for this paper are drawn from a long-term project—Arctic Studies in Culture Change and Mental Health. Field work was undertaken during the summers of 1958, 1961, 1962, and the winter of 1960. Support for the study has been received from the Arctic Institute of North America, the U. S. Office of Naval Research, and the National Institute of Mental Health, United States Public Health Service (M-6177 [A]). Invaluable aid has also been given by the Arctic Research Laboratory, Barrow, Alaska, the Arctic Health Research Center of the U. S. Public Health Service and the Russell Sage Foundation. To Dr. Margaret Lantis, whose help and advice has been sought many times throughout the course of the study, a special debt of gratitude is acknowledged. Reproduction of this article in whole or in part is permitted for any purposes by the United States government.