Basic sociocultural changes are often reflected in changing drinking patterns. Data from rural Uganda suggests that with increasing acculturation, there is a trend toward informal drinking behavior, a preference for modern beverages, and the elaboration of drinking settings. Modern settings appear to provide important opportunities for access to the national culture. Results indicate that the marginal population, not the least or most acculturated, are the heaviest alcohol users. An application of item-analysis to acculturation scale construction and suggestions for further research are also presented.