With this issue, the editors of the American Anthropologist publish the second Contemporary Issues Forum, “A Current Controversy in Human Evolution.” We find it incumbent upon the flagship journal of the profession to encourage productive discussion of issues of relevance to anthropologists and to the public. With this in mind the editors have targeted broadly significant and controversial topics as foci for the forums with a view to encouraging dialogue. The second forum opens an arena for debate in this journal regarding contemporary theories of modern human evolution and their evidential bases in genetics and the fossil record. We recognize the disputed nature of these issues and the potential importance of such controversies to the profession. Commentary on the forum papers from the readership of the American Anthropologist is welcomed.