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When the people of Rock Creek, Montana, display their varied ethnic backgrounds during the annual Festival of Nations, they achieve a concord as neighbors that provides them with an explicit model for national and international relationships. In this performance—and in their social life more generally—amicable relations are seen as based on the principle of neighborly interaction: “if you live right, folks will treat you right.” World peace, the Festival affirms, will come about when individuals everywhere learn, as have those in Rock Creek, to engage in neighborly relationships. Based on a significant misreading of their own history—of the lives of their immigrant coal-mining ancestors—this view precludes an understanding of domestic and international relationships in systemic terms. An accurate analysis of the significance of such a performance requires a focus not only on the reflexivity that it encourages but also on the reflexivity that it curtails. [performance, ethnicity, ritual, class, American social history]