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References Cited

  • Besteman, Catherine 1991 Land Tenure, Social Identity, and the Legacy of Slavery in Southern Somalia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona.
  • Besteman, Catherine 1994a Individualisation and the Assault on Customary Tenure in Africa: Title Registration Programmes and the Case of Somalia. Africa 64(4):484515.
  • Besteman, Catherine 1994b The Invention of Gosha: Slavery, Colonialism, and Stigma in Somali History. In The Invention of Somalia. Ali JimaleAhmed, ed. Pp. 4362. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press.
  • in press Violent Politics and the Politics of Violence: The Dissolution of the Somali Nation-State. American Ethnologist.
  • n.d. The Cold War, Clans, and Chaos in Somalia: A View from the Ground. In States Under Siege. BrianFerguson, ed. Unpublished MS.
  • Burgess, John 1993 Courting Somalia's Clan Elders: System Represents Sole Government. Washington Post, March 28:A30.
  • Burton, Sir Richard 1987 [1894] First Footsteps in East Africa. Mineola, NY: Dover.
  • Caputo, Robert 1993 Tragedy Stalks the Horn of Africa. National Geographic August: 88120.
  • Cassanelli, Lee 1982 The Shaping of Somali Society: Reconstructing the History of a Pastoral People, 1600–1900. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Cassanelli, Lee 1993 Explaining Ethnic Conflict in Somalia. Paper presented to the Ethnicity Workshop Case Studies of High Conflict/Low Conflict Areas, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC, June 28–29.
  • in press Explaining the Somali Crisis. In The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War Behind the War. C.Besteman and L.Cassanelli, eds. Pp. 1326. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • n.d. Somali Land Resource Issues in Historical Perspective. In Learning From Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention. WalterClarke and JeffreyHerbst, eds. Unpublished MS.
  • Clayton, Jonathan 1991 Fighting Engulfs Somali Capital: Bloodbath Feared. Boston Globe, January 2:2.
  • Cable News Network (CNN) 1992a History of Somalia Prior to Present Anarchy. Atlanta: Cable News Network and Company.
  • Cable News Network (CNN) 1992b News for December 8. Atlanta: Cable News Network and Company.
  • Cable News Network (CNN) 1992c The Somali Quagmire. Atlanta: Cable News Network and Company.
  • Ferguson, Brian 1990 Blood of the Leviathan: Western Contact and Warfare in Amazonia. American Ethnologist 17(2):237257.
  • Ferguson, Brian, and NeilWhitehead, eds. 1992 War in the Tribal Zone. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.
  • Gregory, Sophronia Scott 1992 How Somalia Crumbled: Clan Warfare and a Glut of Weapons Have Plunged the Country into Anarchy. Time Magazine, December 14:34.
  • Helander, Bernhard 1988 The Slaughtered Camel: Coping with Fictitious Descent among the Hubeer of Southern Somalia. Ph.D. dissertation, Uppsala University.
  • Henry, Neil 1991a Evacuees Tell of Somalia's Chaos, Carnage: Bodies Said to Litter Capital after Week of Fighting Between Rebels, Troops. Washington Post, January 7: A17.
  • Henry, Neil 1991b Rebels Force Somali Leader Out of Capital. Washington Post, January 1:A1.
  • Lai tin, David, and Said Samatar 1987 Somalia: Nation in Search of a State. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Lemarchand, Rene 1994 Burundi: Ethnocide as Discourse and Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lewis, I. M. 1961 A Pastoral Democracy. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Lewis, I. M. 1988 A Modern History of Somaliland: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Lewis, I. M. 1994 Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press.
  • Menkhaus, Kenneth 1989 Rural Transformation and the Roots of Underdevelopment in Somalia's Lower Jubba Valley. Ph.D. dissertation, University of South Carolina.
  • in press From Feast to Famine: Land and the State in Somalia's Lower Jubba Valley. In The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War Behind the War. C.Besteman and L.Cassanelli, eds. Pp. 133153. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Menkhaus, Kenneth, and Kathryn Craven in press Land Alienation and the Imposition of State Farms in the Lower Jubba Valley. In The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War Behind the War. C.Besteman and L.Cassanelli, eds. Pp. 155177. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Nelan, Bruce 1991 A Very Private War. Time Magazine, January 14:25.
  • New York Times 1992 The Hell Called Somalia. July 23:A22.
  • Omaar, Rakiya, and Alex de Waal 1993 Land Tenure, the Creation of Famine, and Prospects for Peace in Somalia. African Rights Discussion Paper, 1. London.
  • Parmelee, Jennifer 1991 Chaos Reigns in Somalia: Street Battles Reportedly Devastate Capital, Washington Post, December 27:A1, A18.
  • Perlez, Jane 1991a Factional Fighting in Somalia Terrorizes and Ruins Capital. New York Times, December 8:A1, A22.
  • Perlez, Jane 1991b Heavy Fighting Erupts in Somali Capital. New York Times, January 1:A3.
  • Perlez, Jane 1991c Somali Capital a Grisly Battlefield as Civilians Die in Clan Warfare. New York Times, November 29:A12.
  • Perlez, Jane 1991d U.S. and Italy Evacuating Foreigners in Somalia. New York Times, January 6:A3.
  • Perlez, Jane 1992 Barrier to Somali Unity: Clan Rivalry. New York Times, August 30:A12.
  • Richburg, Keith 1992 Can Battered Somalia Be Pieced Back Together? Washington Post, September 24:A20.
  • U.S. News and World Report 1992 Think Three Times Before You Embrace the Somali Tarbaby. U.S. News and World Report, December 14:30.
  • Willis, John Ralph, ed. 1985 Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa. 2 vols London: Frank Cass.
  • Wolf, Eric 1982 Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Wright, Robin 1993 Clan Rivalries May Hinder U.S. Goals in Somalia. Los Angeles Times, October 11:A1.