This article is a preliminary attempt to address an imperative. We begin with case materials describing past conservation impacts on local peoples and a review of the literature dealing with Man and the Biosphere (MAB) and other conservation programs worldwide. We conclude our discussion with a suggestion that recent developments in ecological anthropology, particularly, the advent of processual models, can provide the basis for an important rapprochement among the imperatives underlying natural resource policies, the rights of local populations to traditional resources, and the potential for continued voluntary cultural diversity. These approaches along with the anthropological outreach to environmentalists, whether in agencies or among traditional resource users, will benefit local peoples, anthropology, and the continued efforts to protect the world biome.
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