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Severe alveolar resorption due to chronic marginal periodontitis is ubiquitous in prehistoric Northwest Coast skulls. Deliberate burning of infected dental tissue, associated with periodontal abscessing of severely worn mandibular left molars, is described in a female Native American from the Pendar Canal site (DeRt2), British Columbia, dating from 1090 ± 130 B.P. This is the first archeological evidence among prehistoric peoples of cauterization as a medical treatment for infected oral tissues.