• India;
  • colonialism;
  • tribal groups;
  • applied anthropology;
  • values

Anthropology was introduced into India as an early colonial concern. In these early years, controversy surrounded the development of anthropology because of its application in the colonial/nationalist juxtaposition. Later theoretical and applied studies in anthropology were framed in nationalist terms not based on a value-neutral approach. This chapter examines the work of applied anthropologists from these early times to the present with an emphasis how global issues are increasing anthropological work. It will also discuss the structure of applied anthropology in the country and present examples of anthropologists working for government and international agencies, Universities, NGOs, and for tribal and vulnerable sections of India.