SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • chromatin remodeling;
  • cytokine;
  • gene regulation;
  • innate immunity;
  • macrophages

Abstract

Transcription of inflammatory genes in innate immune cells is coordinately regulated by transcription factors, including NF-κB, and chromatin modifiers. However, it remains unclear how microbial sensing initiates chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that Akirin2, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein, bridges NF-κB and the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex by interacting with BRG1-Associated Factor 60 (BAF60) proteins as well as IκB-ζ, which forms a complex with the NF-κB p50 subunit. These interactions are essential for Toll-like receptor-, RIG-I-, and Listeria-mediated expression of proinflammatory genes including Il6 and Il12b in macrophages. Consistently, effective clearance of Listeria infection required Akirin2. Furthermore, Akirin2 and IκB-ζ recruitment to the Il6 promoter depend upon the presence of IκB-ζ and Akirin2, respectively, for regulation of chromatin remodeling. BAF60 proteins were also essential for the induction of Il6 in response to LPS stimulation. Collectively, the IκB-ζ–Akirin2–BAF60 complex physically links the NF-κB and SWI/SNF complexes in innate immune cell activation. By recruiting SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers to IκB-ζ, transcriptional coactivator for NF-κB, the conserved nuclear protein Akirin2 stimulates pro-inflammatory gene promoters in mouse macrophages during innate immune responses to viral or bacterial infection.

Synopsis

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

By recruiting SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers to NF-κB, the conserved nuclear protein Akirin2 stimulates pro-inflammatory gene promoters in mouse macrophages during innate immune responses to viral or bacterial infection.

  • Akirin2 is critical for Toll-like receptor- and RIG-I-like receptor-induced cytokine production in mouse macrophages
  • Akirin2 is critical for the responses to Listeria monocytogenes infection in living mice
  • Akirin2 enables LPS-induced chromatin remodelling in a SWI/SNF-dependent manner
  • The NF-κBp50-IκB-ζ-Akirin2 cascade is critical for the recruitment of Brg1, the SWI/SNF core catalytic subunit, to the Il6 promoter.