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Origin of the Vertebrate Visual Cycle


  • This paper is part of the Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Retinal Proteins held at Awaji Island, Hyogo, Japan on 4–8 June 2006.

*e-mail: (Motoyuki Tsuda)


In vertebrates, the absorption of light by rhodopsin leads to the isomerization of 11-cis-retinal chromophore to its all-trans form. In the visual cycle, all-trans retinal is converted back to 11-cis retinal. Mammalian visual cycle takes place in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, while that of cephalopods is completed within a photoreceptor cell. To identify visual cycle system in the primitive chordate ascidians, we studied the localization of the ascidian visual cycle genes and proteins by in situ hybridization and whole-mount immunohistochemistry, respectively. We identified four genes encoding putative visual cycle proteins, homologs of retinal G protein-coupled receptor (Ci-opsin3), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (Ci-CRALBP), β-carotene 15,15′monooxygenase (Ci-BCO) and RPE-specific 65 kDa protein (Ci-RPE65) in the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. In contrast to Ci-BCO, which is predominantly localized in ocellus photoreceptor cells of the larva, Ci-RPE65 is not significantly expressed in the ocellus and brain vesicle of the larva. Ci-RPE65 is expressed in the neural complex, a photoreceptor organ of the adult ascidian, at a level comparable with that of Ci-opsin3 and Ci-CRALBP. Proteins of Ci-opsin3, Ci-CRALBP and Ci-BCO are localized in photoreceptor cells. These results suggest that the larval visual cycle uses Ci-opsin3 as a photoisomerase, while the visual cycle of the adult photoreceptors is RPE65-dependent. The colocalization of visual cycle proteins in the photoreceptor cells suggest that ascidian visual cycle takes place in a photoreceptor cell as seen in the cephalopod visual cycle.