A 33-year-old woman with congenital heart disease and atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, managed over the long term with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, epicardial pacing system, and amiodarone, experienced an increase in palpitations and a shock from her defibrillator. Evaluation revealed decreases in amiodarone and desethylamiodarone serum concentrations from previous levels. Rifampin had been added to her therapy 5 weeks earlier. Increases in amiodarone and desethylamiodarone concentrations were observed after an increase in the amiodarone dosage and discontinuation of rifampin. The time course suggested that the addition of rifampin led to reductions in serum concentrations of both the drug and metabolite.