This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the impact of personalized follow-up on compliance rates in high-risk patients receiving combination lipid-lowering therapy over 2 years. A random sample of 30 patients 7–30 days after cardiac surgery had baseline fasting low-density lipoprotein levels higher than 130 mg/dl. All patients received lovastatin 20 mg/day and colestipol 5 g twice/day. Weekly telephone contact was made with each patient for 12 weeks. Short- and long-term compliance was assessed by pill and packet counts and refill records. Compliance and lipid profile results were significantly better in the intervention group (p<0.05) up to 2 years after the start of therapy than in the control group for all parameters except high-density lipoprotein. However this effect was not apparent during the first 12 weeks of therapy. Short-term telephone follow-up favorably affected compliance and lipid profile results up to 2 years after start of therapy.