• Streptococcus pneumoniae;
  • pneumococcal disease;
  • pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine;
  • pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

Streptococcus pneumoniae causes significant morbidity and mortality. Children younger than 2 years and individuals older than 65 years experience the highest rates of pneumococcal disease. Efforts to treat pneumococcal disease have been complicated by increasing resistance to antimicrobials. Prevention efforts have included the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, with use of these vaccines targeted to those at highest risk for disease. Information and background on S. pneumoniae and pneumococcal disease are provided. Vaccines targeted at this pathogen are reviewed, and the clinical trials that evaluated their safety, efficacy, and effectiveness are summarized. Also provided are recommendations for use of these vaccines.