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Keywords:

  • assessment;
  • decoding;
  • fluency;
  • language learners;
  • oral language;
  • phonics;
  • strategies;
  • struggling;
  • vocabulary
  • early childhood;
  • childhood;
  • early adolescence;
  • special needs
  • article

In five phonic generalizations, this article introduces a logical system of letter–sound relationships. Ranging from 91% to 99% phonic transparency, these statements generalize a study of 16,928 words in children's literature. The r-controlled vowels aside, the analysis shows 54 basic transparent letters and letter combinations, 39 transparent phonograms, and 11 nontransparent phonic cells. The generalizations—written in basic, phonogram, and unfit clauses—begin with the following five basic clauses: (1) single vowels usually have their short sound; (2) final single vowel-consonant-e words usually have a long first vowel and a silent final e (–VCe); (3) vowel digraphs usually have one or one of two sounds; (4) single consonants usually have one or one of two sounds; and (5) consonant di/trigraphs usually have one or one of two sounds. In total, single letters, di/trigraphs, –VCe, phonograms, and unfit cells comprise a coherent phonic system. The article concludes with teaching suggestions.