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Keywords:

  • Human mesenchymal stem cells;
  • Adenoviral vectors;
  • Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor;
  • Green fluorescent protein;
  • Gene transfer

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References

Previous reports debated the effects of differentiation on adenoviral vector (AdV) transduction efficiency and Cox-sackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression. This prompted us to investigate the efficiency of AdV transduc-tion and CAR expression in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and their differentiated progeny. Current results revealed high efficiency (>90%) of AdV transduction and a consistent level of CAR expression in hMSCs by the use of AdV carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene. Competition of CAR with blocking monoclonal antibody RmcB resulted in a reduction in transduction efficiency, indicating the CAR involvement in transduction of hMSCs. The cells were then induced to differentiate into bone, fat, or neural cells, and results demonstrated that the differentiation was accompanied with a consistent decline in AdV transduction and a decrement in CAR expression. Cells were infected with AdV and then induced into differentiation, and results demonstrated that transduced cells preserved differentiation potentials and still had transgene expression in a subpopulation of cells for 4 weeks and even in tested lineage-specific differentiation. According to the present investigation, undifferentiated hMSCs can serve as a gene-delivering system, and gene transfer into hMSCs before differentiation can resolve the difficulties in transduction of their differentiated progeny.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References

Adenoviral vectors (AdVs) are well-known for their stability, ease of handling, and high uptake by many cell types, including noncycling cells. In addition, AdV can be concentrated to extremely high titers as well [13]. Recent advances in AdV modifications offer a less immunogenic strain (defective recombinants) and an increase in the recombinant genome insert size [4, 5]. Therefore, the application of AdV is more relevant for human gene therapy than other means.

Because the efficacy of virus entry is restricted by interaction of viral fibers and cell-surface receptors, the abundance and the variety of viral-associated surface molecules expressed in cells are particularly important. The entry pathway for AdV consists of initial binding to the cells, which is mediated by the association of the adenoviral fiber protein and a 46-kDa membrane protein known as Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) [6], followed by internalization, which is through an interaction of viral penton arginine-glycine-aspartate sequence to the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins [7].

The CAR is a primary passage, mediating the uptake of adenovirus in the 293 cell line, HeLa cell line, and cells derived from airways. However, cellular function of CAR is not clear, and CAR is only expressed in some types of cells and tissues. It has been demonstrated on oropharyngeal epithelial cells that the superficial layer (more developed) had less CAR expression than the basal layer (less developed), suggesting CAR expression correlated reciprocally with the status of differentiation [8]. In contrast, CAR expression was only demonstrated in a small subset of CD34+ bone marrow (BM) and mobilized blood cells [9, 10], whereas AdV transduction efficiency and CAR expression increase as the cells differentiate into erythroid and myeloid hematopoietic cells [11]. CAR is expressed in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) [12] but not expressed in certain kinds of mesenchymal cells such as primary human fibroblast [13].

Because hMSCs can be induced to differentiate into certain kinds of mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal tissues, they provide a model to study the effects of differentiation on AdV transduction and CAR expression. Therefore, we investigated AdV transduction efficiency and CAR expression in hMSCs and their differentiated progeny. Efforts were also made to characterize the transduced hMSCs in the differentiation potential and to know the persistence of transgene expression into hMSC progeny.

Materials and Methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References

Cell Culture

The hMSCs were isolated from human BM as previously reported [14]. In brief, BM aspirates, washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (Sigma, St. Louis, http://www.sigmaaldrich.com) and suspended in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-low glucose (DMEM-LG; Gibco, Grand Island, NY, http://www.lifetech.com) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Gibco), 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 mg/ml streptomycin, and 0.25 μg/ml amphotericin B, were plated on a 10-cm plastic culture dish comprising a plate with 3-μm pores (Transwell; Corning Inc., Corning, NY, http://www.corning.com) at a density of 106 mononuclear cells/cm2. Cells that adhered to the pore-containing plate were recovered at 7 days after initial plating, and the hMSC culture was developed by plating the cells at approximately 6,000 cells/cm2 and subculturing at a ratio of 1:3 when cells reached greater than 80% confluence.

RecombinantAdenovirus andAdV Infection

An enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP, City Name, ST) cDNA from pEGFP-N1 (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA, http://www.clontech.com) was subcloned into the adenovirus shuttle plasmid vector, pAd-PGK, which contains a promoter of the human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and a polyadenylation signal of bovine growth hormone. The Ad-PGK-EGFP, with E1 and E3 deletions, was constructed by homologous recombination and amplified in human embryonic kidney 293 cells as previously described [15]. Viruses were purified by CsCl density-gradient centrifugation, and viral titers were determined by plaque-forming assay. Purified virus was stored in 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), 1 mM MgCl2, and 10% (vol/vol) glycerol at −80°C until used for the experiments. For infection, approximately 2 × 105 cells were seeded on a 3.5-cm Petri dish in 0.5 ml of serum-free DMEM-LG, and virus was added at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1,000. After 2 hours, 2 ml of DMEM-LG supplemented with 10% FBS or corresponding induction medium was added. Cells were harvested for GFP detection at 48 hours after infection.

GFP Transgene Detection and CAR Expression Determination

Expression of GFP transgene in hMSCs was detected by visualization of cells with a phase-contrast microscope equipped with a fluorescence filter set. Alternately, GFP transgene expression was quantified by flow cytometry after exclusion of dead cells and debris by staining of propidium iodide and analyzed using a standard filter set up for fluorescein isothiocyanate detection (525-nm bandpass filter; FAC-Scan, Becton, Dickinson, MountainView, CA).

For determination of CAR expression, cells were washed twice with PBS and stained with monoclonal antibody RmcB (anti-CAR, kindly provided by Dr. R. Finberg, Harvard Medical School, Boston) as hybridoma supernatant or control immunoglobulin G (IgG) for 30 minutes at 4°C in PBS supplemented with 0.1% bovine serum albumin (PBS-BSA). After incubation, the cells were washed twice with PBS-BSA and then incubated for 30 minutes at 4°C in the dark with a fluorescence-conjugated secondary antibody (Immunotech, Marseilles, France, http://www.immunotech.fr) in PBS-BSA. Cells were then washed, suspended in PBS, and finally measured for fluorescence by flow cytometry analysis.

Competition of CAR by Monoclonal Antibody

For competition experiments, hMSCs were harvested from the culture dishes by treatment of 5 mM EDTA in PBS, suspended either in culture medium alone (control) or in medium containing control mouse IgG (50 μg/ml) or the indicated blocking monoclonal antibody RmcB at selected dilutions, incubated for 1 hour at 4°C, and then seeded on dishes and used for AdV infection. Cells were additionally incubated for 48 hours, and the percentage of transduced cells was scored by flow cytometry.

Induction of Multilineage Differentiation

The hMSC culture was maintained in DMEM-LG supplemented with 10% FBS (as undifferentiated hMSC) or treated in one of the following formulas: osteogenic differentiation medium [14]: DMEM-LG supplemented with 10% FBS, 50 μg/ml ascorbate-2 phosphate (Nacalai, Kyoto, Japan, http://www.nacalai.com/en), 10−8 M dexamethasone (Sigma), and 10 mM β-glycerophosphate (Sigma); adipogenic differentiation medium [14]: DMEM-LG supplemented with 10% FBS, 50 μg/ml ascorbate-2 phosphate, 10−7 M dexamethasone, and 50 μg/ml indomethacin (Sigma); or neuron differentiation medium [16]: cells pretreated with DMEM-LG supplemented with 10% FBS, 10−7 M retinoic acid (Sigma), and 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (Gibco) for 24 hours and then treated with serum depletion for 5 hours to 5 days. The medium was changed every 3 days, the differentiation status of culture was identified by histochemical and immunofluorescence study, and cells were used for AdV infection or for CAR expression determination.

Histochemical and Immunofluorescence Study

The medium was removed from the culture, and cells were washed twice with PBS. Cells were fixed in 3.7% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes at room temperature and washed twice with PBS. The cells treated by osteogenic formula were stained with alkaline phosphatase staining to reveal osteogenic differentiation [14]. Those treated by adipogenic formula were stained with Oil red O to show adipogenic differentiation [14]. Immunofluorescence study for neuron marker, with an anti-β-tubulin III polyclonal antibody (PRB-435p, Covance Research Products, Princeton, NJ, http://www.crpinc.com), was also done to demonstrate neural differentiation [16].

Results

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References

InVitro AdV-Mediated Gene Transfer into hMSCs

For these studies, gene transfer was demonstrated by AdV transduction with the EGFP gene. The hMSC cultures were infected with Ad-PGK-EGFP, and 2 days later, transduction was assessed by transgene expression. As seen in Figure 1, after exposure to Ad-PGK-EGFP for 2 days, almost all cells were transduced as detected under both fluorescent microscope (Figs. 1A, 1B) and by flow cytometry analysis (Fig. 1C), displaying high fluorescent signal for GFP. At this time, transduced cells encoding GFP fluorescence were found to have a good viability and no disturbance in adherence. A strong green fluorescence in the infected hMSCs indicated a high efficiency of virus particles entering in cells. The efficiency of AdV-mediated gene transfer into hMSCs as analyzed by flow cytometry was 91.7 ± 6.6% (Table 1). High AdV transduction efficiency was also attained by the use of Ad-CMV-EGFP, a vector directing the expression of EGFP under the control of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (data not shown). These cells were expanded in normal growth medium with transgene retained and expressed in a small fraction of hMSC progeny even up to 4 weeks after infection (Figs. 1E, 1F). The cells carrying transgene adopted a picture of senescence, with a greater size and a broader shape, suggesting the transgene expression in the case of adenoviral infection is transient in origin and cells tend to lose transgene expression during several cycles of proliferation.

Table Table 1.. The average percentage of green fluorescent protein–positive cells after adenoviral vector infection in respective cell category (the culture duration of lineage-committed induction)
Undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells
    91.8% ± 6.3%
Adipogenic differentiation
    44.28 (3 d)
    29.90 (7 d)
    18.76 (10 d)
Osteogenic differentiation
    31.35 (10 d)
    13.78 (17 d)
    59.26 (23 d)
Neurogenic differentiation
    92.59 (5 hours)
    88.80 (5 d)
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Figure Figure 1.. The hMSC culture after infection with Ad-PGK-EGFP adenoviral vectors. (A): Phase microscopic appearance of hMSCs. (B): Transduced cells encoding GFP. Original magnification ×100. (C): Percentage and GFP fluorescence intensity of transduced cells. (D): Expression of AdV attachment receptor CAR in hMSCs. Abbreviations: Ad-PGK-EGFP, adenoviral phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced green fluorescent protein; CAR, Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell.

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Expression and Participation of CAR in AdV-Mediated Gene Transfer into hMSCs

Conget and Minguell [12] have reported that the attachment of CAR, but not integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5, is required for AdV-mediated gene transfer into hMSCs. Therefore, we investigated by flow cytometry whether these cells express CAR. As shown in Figure 1D, CAR expression was demonstrated in hMSCs using CAR-specific monoclonal antibody RmcB. The pattern of CAR expression was homogeneous, and nearly half of the cells had moderate expression of CAR. To determine the participation of CAR in AdV infection, hMSCs were infected with Ad-PGK-EGFP in either the presence or absence of monoclonal antibody RmcB for competing CAR. As shown in Figure 2, incubating specific monoclonal antibody RmcB against CAR immediately before AdV infection allowed AdV infection to be inhibited by nearly 40%. Moreover, the effect of CAR competition by specific monoclonal antibody to inhibit AdV infection in hMSCs was dose dependent.

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Figure Figure 2.. Effect of inhibition of Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor on adenoviral vector–mediated transduction of hMSCs. The hMSC suspension was incubated in the absence (control) or presence of control mouse IgG or the RmcB antibody in ascites fluid at selected dilutions (×250, ×50, ×10, and ×2). Cells were then infected with Ad-PGK-EGFP (48 hours), and the percentage of transduced cells was scored by flow cytometry and calculated with respect to control, which was set to 1. An inverse relationship of percentage of transduced cells to the concentration of RmcB antibody is demonstrated. Data shown represent the mean ± standard deviation. Abbreviations: Ad-PGK-EGFP, adenoviral phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced green fluorescent protein; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell; IgG, immunoglobulin G.

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Reduced AdV Transduction Efficiency and CAR Expression in Lineage-Differentiated hMSCs

The hMSC culture was induced to differentiate along the osteogenic, adipogenic, or neurogenic lineage, as previously described [14, 16]. As shown in Figure 3 and Table 1, hMSCs had a relatively low efficiency of AdV transduction, with 31%, 14%, and 59% at 10 days, 17 days, and 23 days, respectively, after osteogenic induction. The low efficiency of AdV transduction in the differentiated cells was correlated with a decrease in CAR expression after 10 days of osteogenic induction. The level of CAR expression was undetectable at 17 days after induction, but a regain of CAR was observed in 23-day induced cells.

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Figure Figure 3.. The hMSC culture following infection with Ad-PGK-GFP adenoviral vectors after treatment with osteogenic (A), adipogenic (B), and neurogenic medium (C) for selected time periods. Histogram shows GFP fluorescence intensity data for transduced cells and expression of adenoviral vector attachment receptor CAR in hMSCs. Abbreviations: Ad-PGK-EGFP, adenoviral phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced green fluorescent protein; CAR, Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell.

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An inverse correlation was also observed between the maturation of adipogenic differentiation and the efficiency of adenoviral transduction. The observed efficiency was 44%, 30%, and 19% at 3 days, 7 days, and 10 days, respectively, after adipogenic induction. CAR expression was only observed in a subpopulation of adipogenic-differentiated hMSCs, equal to 5% or less at 3 days after adipogenic induction, but CAR expression was undetectable if the induction was continued for more than 7 days.

Unlike osteogenic and adipogenic inductions, neurogenic induction of hMSCs had only minor influence on AdV transduction efficiency. The efficiency corresponding to 5 hours and 5 days after neurogenic induction was 93% and 89%, respectively. However, the prolonged neurogenic culture for 5 days had a lower fluorescent intensity compared with those that had neurogenic induction for 5 hours. In addition, hMSCs that underwent neurogenic induction had less CAR expression in total population compared with the undifferentiated status.

Differentiation Potentials of Transduced hMSCs and Persistence of Transgene Expression into hMSC Progeny

Because the adenoviral transduction is more efficient in the undifferentiated hMSCs than the fate-determined hMSC progeny, we have additionally investigated the plasticity of transduced hMSCs and the persistence of transgene expression into hMSC progeny after lineage-specific differentiation. After AdV infection, the hMSC culture was induced to differentiate along the osteogenic, adipogenic, or neurogenic lineage, and the persistence of the transgene into differentiated cells was studied under fluorescent microscope and by flow cytometry. As shown in Figure 4, AdV-transduced hMSCs that expressed GFP fluorescence and had the lipid vesicles synthesized and stained red by Oil red O dye were clearly identified at 10 days after adipogenic induction. The transduced cells loose in attachment were prone to retract from the culture surface. Moreover, our data have also demonstrated that AdV-transduced hMSCs maintained the potential to differentiate along the osteogenic lineage. Osteogenic differentiation was identified by the bone alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain, and fluorescence was proven on day 14 after initial induction. AP stain marked osteogenic progeny red to dark purple, and a thickening and mesh network of cytoskeleton was observed in the osteogenic culture (Fig. 5). In addition, indirect immunofluorescent staining for neuron-specific protein, β-tubulin III, was used to identify neural differentiation of transduced hMSCs after induction with neural medium for 2 days. Those cells exhibit neuron maker primarily in cytoplasm but not nucleus, whereas GFP was concentrated in nucleus and some was dispersed in cytoplasm (Fig. 6).

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Figure Figure 4.. Adipogenic differentiation of transduced hMSCs. The hMSC culture after infection with Ad-PGK-EGFP was treated with adipogenic medium for 10 days. (A): Transduced cells encoding GFP. (B): Oil red O staining cells. (C): The merged picture of (A, B). The same field exhibiting green fluorescence and stained red indicates the transduced cells have been differentiated into the adipogenic lineage. Original magnification ×150. Abbreviations: Ad-PGK-EGFP, adenoviral phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced green fluorescent protein; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell.

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Figure Figure 5.. Osteogenic differentiation of transduced hMSCs. The hMSC culture after infection with Ad-PGK-EGFP was treated with osteogenic medium for 14 days. (A): Transduced cells encoding GFP. (B): Alkaline phosphatase staining cells. (C): The merged picture of (A, B). The same field exhibiting green fluorescence and stained red indicates the transduced cells have been differentiated into the osteogenic lineage. Original magnification ×150. Abbreviations: Ad-PGK-EGFP, adenoviral phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced green fluorescent protein; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell.

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Figure Figure 6.. Neurogenic differentiation of transduced hMSCs. The hMSC culture after infection with Ad-PGK-EGFP was treated with neurogenic medium for 2 days. (A): Confocal image of transduced cells encoding GFP. (B): Some corresponding cells are positive for neuron marker, β-tubulin III, as evidenced by immunofluorescence staining. Original magnification ×300. Abbreviations: Ad-PGK-EGFP, adenoviral phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced green fluorescent protein; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell.

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Discussion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References

We confirm in this report that AdV efficiently infects hMSCs and that transduced sequences are retained and expressed by a small fraction of hMSC progeny up to 4 weeks after infection. The 90% transduction rate we have obtained, assessed by transgene expression, is much higher than that observed by Conget et al. [12] in hMSCs (19% transduction rate, even at MOI 2,000) and also higher than BM [9], cord blood, and mobilized blood CD34+ cells [10]. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of the transduced cell population is high and maintained over several days in culture. This high expression rate associated with both Ad-PGK-EGFP and Ad-CMV-EGFP indicates that an efficient key factor in AdV-mediated transduction is probably not on the vector or the promoter of the vector used but dependent on the content or purity of the cells. BM, a mixture of many cell populations, contained hematopoietic stem cells and nonhematopoietic stem cells that include MSCs. Previous reports debated the homogeneity of hMSCs, but the purity of hMSCs depends on the method used to isolate and enrich them. The hMSCs that we have isolated and characterized in previous reports have attained 98% of homogeneity [14]. In contrast to undifferentiated hMSCs, we did not achieve a high ratio of transgene expression in hMSCs that were treated by a different induction medium in which the cells underwent lineage-specific differentiation. Furthermore, several attempts to improve upon this infection efficiency by manipulating serum and divalent ion concentration achieved no increase in the transduction rate in induction medium–treated hMSCs.

Factors determining the susceptibility of the target undifferentiated and induced cells to the AdV infection are not entirely known. AdV uses fiber protein to attach to a recently identified cell-surface CAR [6], and vitronectin-binding αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins function as secondary receptors to mediate virus internalization [7]. The level of CAR expression, but not integrin expression, on the cell surface of hMSCs determined the efficiency of AdV-mediated gene transfer [12], and the induction of CAR expression on fibroblast promoted the binding of penton base protein and facilitated AdV-mediated gene delivery [13]. Based on these observations, we have evaluated CAR expression on hMSC surface before and after incubation with different induction mediums and attempted to relate CAR expression with trans-gene expression. We reasoned that the initiation of differentiation in hMSCs should affect the level of CAR expression and indirectly have effects on AdV-mediated gene transfer into the target cells. We observed that, before any induction, hMSCs expressed a high level of CAR, and more than 90% of hMSCs were permissive for AdV infection; moreover, treatment with any induction medium effectively decreased surface expression of CAR and reduced expression of the transgene. Our results suggest that, as reported in other cell types [6], CAR expression is necessarily predictive of the extent of transgene expression in hMSCs. We also observed that incubation of hMSCs with CAR-specific monoclonal antibody RmcB significantly reduced approximately 40% of AdV-mediated gene transfer, confirming the participation of CAR on AdV entry and transgene expression in hMSCs [12]. Similar with other reports, however, competition of CAR with monoclonal antibody did not totally hinder the AdV-mediated gene transfer, suggesting that the necessity of CAR for infection may be relative rather than absolute and that other, not-yet-defined mechanisms may have participated in AdV-mediated gene transfer into hMSCs.

The degree of commitment to lineage-specific differentiation coincided with a reduction in CAR expression in hMSCs, suggesting the role of CAR in differentiation-related pathway. CAR expression is also reciprocally correlated with the maturity of cellular differentiation in oropharyngeal cells, so that the superficial layer (more developed) had less CAR expression than the basal layer (less developed) [8]. However, CAR expression is upregulated during maturation and lineage-specific differentiation in hematopoietic cells. Cellular function of CAR is not investigated here, and slight expression of CAR was observed again in the late osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Therefore, efforts still should be made to know more about the involvement of CAR in cell proliferation and differentiation by the use of overexpression or deletion of CAR in hMSCs.

According to our previous data, hMSCs isolated from 5–10 ml of BM could be expanded to 1014 in an additional 15 weeks of culture, equal to the total cells of an individual human body [14]. The hMSCs could be efficiently induced to undergo differentiation by different induction mediums into bone, fat, cartilage, and electrically active neural cells, representing an optimal source for cell therapy and tissue engineering [14, 16, 17]. From a clinical point of view, in contrast with retrovirus vectors that require extensive culture of target cells and long incubation times [18], AdV can infect hMSCs at extremely favorable conditions. The hMSCs were infected by AdV at a 1,000:1 virus:target ratio with only 0.5 ml of supernatant, whereas 200 ml of a retrovirus supernatant with a 106 pfu/ml titer are needed for the same purpose. This dramatic simplification of infection conditions supports the use of AdV for clinical conditions in which permanent gene transfer into hMSC is not required. We can envisage two of these conditions, one being the autografting of hMSCs genetically modified by transduction of a cancer therapy gene, in which hMSCs should express high levels of the therapy gene just for the time period the cancer is evidenced in the body. Other studies have shown that the tumor microenvironment preferentially promotes the engraftment of hMSC compared with other tissues [19]. The hMSC with forced expression of interferon (IFN)-β inhibited the growth of malignant cells in vivo. Importantly, this effect required the integration of hMSCs into the tumors and could not be achieved by systemically delivered IFN-β or by IFN-β produced by hMSCs at a site distant from the tumors. These results indicated that hMSCs might serve as a platform for delivery of biological agents in tumors. The second circumstance in which AdV-mediated ex vivo transduction of hMSCs could be useful is the implementation of regeneration programs for tissue repair. Other studies have demonstrated that BMP2-expressed mesenchymal cells or osteoprogenitor cells can promote bone formation and help fracture healing [20, 21]. AdV could thus advantageously be used as a vehicle for delivering growth factor genes into hMSCs.

The present study demonstrates that CAR is rate-limiting for AdV infection of hMSCs and, importantly, demonstrates CAR loss and reduced AdV-mediated gene transfer in induction medium–treated hMSCs. In addition, we have proven the maintenance of differentiation potentials and the persistence of transgene expression into induction medium–treated hMSC progeny in AdV-transduced hMSCs. Accordingly, a strategy is designed to use AdV for delivering therapy gene or growth factor gene to undifferentiated hMSCs and has the gene persistently expressed after cell differentiation. In conclusion, the hMSC is potentially usable in clinical protocols of cell therapy and tissue engineering, and AdV is a useful tool for gene transduction into hMSC, particularly for applications in which high transgene expression for a limited period of time is required.

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References

We thank R. Finberg (Harvard Medical School, Boston) for the gift of monoclonal antibody RmcB. We also thank MingLing Hsu for excellent flow cytometry technical support and Bor-Chun Weng for his assistance in preparing the manuscript. This work was supported in part by grant No. 92-376-1 from Veteran General Hospital-Taipei and by NSC 91-2321-B-002-005 from the National Science Council, Taipei, Taiwan.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References