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- Materials and Methods
The newly identified protein chromatin-related mesenchymal modulator (CReMM) is expressed by marrow stromal progenitors in vivo and ex vivo. CReMM belongs to a recently identified subgroup of chromodomain helicase-DNA-binding proteins composed of multiple domains including chromodomains, SNF2/ATPase, helicase-C domain, SANT, and A/T-hook-DNA binding domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was applied to follow the dynamics of CReMM binding to A/T-rich regions on promoters of genes that play a role in osteoblast maturation. CReMM interaction with BMP4 and biglycan promoters in the marrow stromal cells was challenged with transforming growth factor-β. Treatment with 17β-estradiol enhanced the binding to estrogen receptor and abolished binding to the prolactin receptor promoters; CReMM interaction with osteocalcin promoter was identified constantly. CReMM binding to the analyzed endogenous promoters suggests its direct role in the transcriptional program activated during osteogenic cell differentiation, which may be a useful tool for following the molecular mechanism of the “stemness” of mesenchymal cells.