In this study, we report on recent advances on the functions of embryonic, fetal, and adult stem cell progenitors for tissue regeneration and cancer therapies. We describe new procedures for derivation and maturation of these stem cells into the tissue-specific cell progenitors. The localization of the adult stem cells and their niches, as well as their implication in the tissue repair after injuries and during cancer progression, are also described. The emphasis is on the interactions among certain developmental signaling factors, such as hormones, epidermal growth factor, hedgehog, Wnt/β-catenin, and Notch. These factors and their pathways are involved in the stringent regulation of the self-renewal and/or differentiation of adult stem cells. Novel strategies for the treatment of both diverse degenerating disorders, by cell replacement, and some metastatic cancer types, by molecular targeting multiple tumorigenic signaling elements in cancer progenitor cells, are also illustrated.