Toll-Like Receptors 3 and 4 Are Expressed by Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Can Inhibit Their T-Cell Modulatory Activity by Impairing Notch Signaling
Article first published online: 25 OCT 2007
Copyright © 2008 AlphaMed Press
Volume 26, Issue 1, pages 279–289, January 2008
How to Cite
Liotta, F., Angeli, R., Cosmi, L., Filì, L., Manuelli, C., Frosali, F., Mazzinghi, B., Maggi, L., Pasini, A., Lisi, V., Santarlasci, V., Consoloni, L., Angelotti, M. L., Romagnani, P., Parronchi, P., Krampera, M., Maggi, E., Romagnani, S. and Annunziato, F. (2008), Toll-Like Receptors 3 and 4 Are Expressed by Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Can Inhibit Their T-Cell Modulatory Activity by Impairing Notch Signaling. STEM CELLS, 26: 279–289. doi: 10.1634/stemcells.2007-0454
- Issue published online: 2 JAN 2009
- Article first published online: 25 OCT 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 OCT 2007
- Manuscript Received: 15 JUN 2007
- Stem cells;
- T cells;
Bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, nonhemopoietic progenitors that also possess regulatory activity on immune effector cells through different mechanisms. We demonstrate that human BM-derived MSCs expressed high levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 4, which are both functional, as shown by the ability of their ligands to induce nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and CXCL10. Of note, ligation of TLR3 and TLR4 on MSCs also inhibited the ability of these cells to suppress the proliferation of T cells, without influencing their immunophenotype or differentiation potential. The TLR triggering effects appeared to be related to the impairment of MSC signaling to Notch receptors in T cells. Indeed, MSCs expressed the Notch ligand Jagged-1, and TLR3 or TLR4 ligation resulted in its strong downregulation. Moreover, anti-Jagged-1 neutralizing antibody and N[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), an inhibitor of Notch signaling, hampered the suppressive activity of MSCs on T-cell proliferation. These data suggest that TLR3 and TLR4 expression on MSCs may provide an effective mechanism to block the immunosuppressive activity of MSCs and therefore to restore an efficient T-cell response in the course of dangerous infections, such as those sustained by double-stranded RNA viruses or Gram-negative bacteria, respectively.
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.