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Keywords:

  • Neurogenesis;
  • Dentate gyrus;
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor;
  • Neural stem cell;
  • STAT;
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor

Abstract

In the neurogenic areas of the adult rodent brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate and produce new neurons throughout the lifetime. This requires a permanent pool of NSCs, the size of which needs to be tightly controlled. The gp130-associated cytokines ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) have been implicated in regulating NSC self-renewal and differentiation during embryonic development and in the adult brain. To study the relevance of the two cytokines in vivo, we analyzed precursor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of CNTF- and LIF-deficient mouse mutants. The number of radial glia-like NSCs, proliferative activity, and generation of new neurons were all reduced in CNTF−/− mutants but unaltered in LIF−/− animals. Conditional ablation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) gene under the control of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter resulted in a reduction of neurogenesis similar to that in CNTF−/− mice. The size of the granule cell layer was decreased in both mutants. Treatment of neurosphere cultures prepared from adult forebrain with CNTF inhibited overall proliferative activity but increased the number of NSCs as indicated by enhanced secondary neurosphere formation and upregulated expression of stem cell markers. Knockdown of STAT3 with short interfering RNA inhibited CNTF effects on neurospheres, and knockdown of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) enhanced them. Our results provide evidence that CNTF-induced STAT3 signaling is essential for the formation and/or maintenance of the neurogenic subgranular zone in the adult dentate gyrus and suggest that CNTF is required to keep the balance between NSC self-renewal and the generation of neuronal progenitors. STEM CELLS2008;27:431–441