A Novel Stem Cell Source for Vasculogenesis in Ischemia: Subfraction of Side Population Cells from Dental Pulp
Article first published online: 26 JUN 2008
Copyright © 2008 AlphaMed Press
Volume 26, Issue 9, pages 2408–2418, September 2008
How to Cite
Iohara, K., Zheng, L., Wake, H., Ito, M., Nabekura, J., Wakita, H., Nakamura, H., Into, T., Matsushita, K. and Nakashima, M. (2008), A Novel Stem Cell Source for Vasculogenesis in Ischemia: Subfraction of Side Population Cells from Dental Pulp. STEM CELLS, 26: 2408–2418. doi: 10.1634/stemcells.2008-0393
- Issue published online: 2 JAN 2009
- Article first published online: 26 JUN 2008
- Manuscript Accepted: 18 JUN 2008
- Manuscript Received: 21 APR 2008
- Dental pulp stem cells;
- Side population cells;
- Limb ischemia;
Cell therapy with stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to stimulate vasculogenesis as a potential treatment for ischemic disease is an exciting area of research in regenerative medicine. EPCs are present in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and adipose tissue. Autologous EPCs, however, are obtained by invasive biopsy, a potentially painful procedure. An alternative approach is proposed in this investigation. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. We isolated a highly vasculogenic subfraction of side population (SP) cells based on CD31 and CD146, from dental pulp. The CD31−;CD146− SP cells, demonstrating CD34+ and vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (VEGFR2)/Flk1+, were similar to EPCs. These cells were distinct from the hematopoietic lineage as CD11b, CD14, and CD45 mRNA were not expressed. They showed high proliferation and migration activities and multilineage differentiation potential including vasculogenic potential. In models of mouse hind limb ischemia, local transplantation of this subfraction of SP cells resulted in successful engraftment and an increase in the blood flow including high density of capillary formation. The transplanted cells were in proximity of the newly formed vasculature and expressed several proangiogenic factors, such as VEGF-A, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and MMP3. Conditioned medium from this subfraction showed the mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, subfraction of SP cells from dental pulp is a new stem cell source for cell-based therapy to stimulate angiogenesis/vasculogenesis during tissue regeneration.
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.