• 1
    Orlic D, Bodine D. What defines a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell PHSC: will the real PHSC please stand up! Blood 1994; 84: 39913994.
  • 2
    Spangrude GJ, Heimfeld S, Weissman IL. Purification and characterization of mouse hematopoietic stem cells. Science 1988; 241: 5862.
  • 3
    Uchida N, Weissman IL. Searching for hematopoietic stem cells: evidence that Thy-1.1loLinSca-1+ cells are the only stem cells in C57BL/Ka-Thy-1.1 bone marrow. J Exp Med 1992; 175: 175184.
  • 4
    Okada S, Nakauchi H, Nagayoshi K, et al. Enrichment and characterization of murine hematopoietic stem cells that express c-kit molecule. Blood 1991; 78: 17061712.
  • 5
    Okada S, Nakauchi H, Nagayoshi K, et al. In vivo and in vitro stem cell function of c-kit and Sca-1-positive murine hematopoietic cells. Blood 1992; 80: 30443050.
  • 6
    Koeffler HP, Billing R, Lusis AJ, et al. An undifferentiated variant derived from the human acute myelogenous leukemia cell line (KG-1). Blood 1980; 56: 265273.
  • 7
    Lubbert M, Herrmann F, Koeffler HP. Expression and regulation of myeloid-specific genes in normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Blood 1991; 77: 909924.
  • 8
    Civin CI, Strauss LC, Brovall C, et al. Antigenic analysis of hematopoiesis III. A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells. J Immunol 1984; 133: 157165.
  • 9
    Berenson RJ, Andrews RG, Bensinger WI, et al. Antigen CD34+ marrow cells engraft lethally irradiated baboons. J Clin Invest 1988; 81: 951955.
  • 10
    Link H, Arseniev L, Bähre O, et al. Transplantation of allogeneic CD34+ blood cells. Blood 1996; 87: 49034909.
  • 11
    Civin CI, Trischmann T, Kadan NS, et al. Highly purified CD34-positive cells reconstitute hematopoiesis. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14: 22242233.
  • 12
    Urbano-Ispizua A, Rozman C, Martinaez C, et al. Rapid engraftment without significant graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic transplantation of CD34+ selected cells from peripheral blood. Blood 1997; 89: 39673973.
  • 13
    Srour EF, Zanjani ED, Cornetta K, et al. Persistence of human multilineage, self-renewing lymphohematopoietic stem cells in chimeric sheep. Blood 1993; 82: 33333342.
  • 14
    Civin CI, Almeida-Porada G, Lee MJ, et al. Sustained, retransplantable, multilineage engraftment of highly purified adult human bone marrow stem cells in vivo. Blood 1996; 88: 41024109.
  • 15
    Bhatia M, Wang JC, Kapp U, et al. Purification of primitive human hematopoietic cells capable of repopulating immune-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 53205325.
  • 16
    Krause DS, Ito T, Fackler MJ, et al. Characterization of murine CD34, a marker for hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells. Blood 1994; 84: 691701.
  • 17
    Morel F, Szilvassy SJ, Travis M, et al. Primitive hematopoietic cells in murine bone marrow express the CD34 antigen. Blood 1996; 88: 37743784.
  • 18
    Cheng J, Baumhueter S, Cacalano G, et al. Hematopoietic defects in mice lacking the sialomucin CD34. Blood 1996; 87: 479490.
  • 19
    Osawa M, Hanada K, Hamada H, et al. Long-term lymphohematopoietic reconstitution by a single CD34-low/negative hematopoietic stem cell. Science 1996; 273: 242245.
  • 20
    Goodell MA, Brose K, Paradis G, et al. Isolation and functional properties of murine hematopoietic stem cells that are replicating in vivo. J Exp Med 1996; 183: 17971806.
  • 21
    Goodell MA, Rosenzweig M, Kim H, et al. Dye efflux studies suggest that hematopoietic stem cells expressing low or undetectable levels of CD34 antigen exist in multiple species. Nat Med 1997; 3: 13371345.
  • 22
    Morel F, Galy A, Chen B, et al. Equal distribution of competitive long-term repopulating stem cells in the CD34+ and CD34 fractions of Thy-1lowLin–/lowSca-1+ bone marrow cells. Exp Hematol 1998; 26: 440448.
  • 23
    Donnelly DS, Zelterman D, Sharkis S, et al. Functional activity of murine CD34+ and CD34 hematopoietic stem cell populations. Exp Hematol 1999; 27: 788796.
  • 24
    Sato T, Laver JH, Ogawa M. Reversible expression of CD34 by murine hematopoietic stem cells. Blood 1999; 94: 25482554.
  • 25
    Tajima F, Sato T, Laver JH, et al. CD34 expression by murine hematopoietic stem cells mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood 2000; 96: 19891993.
  • 26
    Ito T, Tajima F, Ogawa M. Developmental changes of CD34 expression by murine hematopoietic stem cells. Exp Hematol 2000; 28: 12691273.
  • 27
    Matsuoka S, Ebihara Y, Xu M, et al. CD34 expression on long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells changes during developmental stages. Blood 2001; 97: 419425.
  • 28
    Bhatia M, Bonnet D, Murdoch B, et al. A newly discovered class of human hematopoietic cells with SCID-repopulating activity. Nat Med 1998; 4: 10381045.
  • 29
    Zanjani ED, Almeida-Porada G, Livingston AG, et al. Human bone marrow CD34 cells engraft in vivo and undergo multilineage expression that includes giving rise to CD34+ cells. Exp Hematol 1998; 26: 353360.
  • 30
    Verfaillie CM, Almeida-Porada G, Wissink S, et al. Kinetics of engraftment of CD34 and CD34+ cells from mobilized blood differs from that of CD34 and CD34+ cells from bone marrow. Exp Hematol 2000; 28: 10711079.
  • 31
    Sutherland HJ, Eaves CJ, Eaves AC, et al. Characterization and partial purification of human marrow cells capable of initiating long-term hematopoiesis in vitro. Blood 1989; 74: 15631570.
  • 32
    Sutherland HJ, Lansdorp PM, Henkelman DH, et al. Functional characterization of individual human hematopoietic stem cells cultured at limiting dilution on supportive marrow stromal layers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 35843588.
  • 33
    Baum CM, Weissman IL, Tsukamoto AS, et al. Isolation of a candidate human hematopoietic stem-cell population. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 28042808.
  • 34
    Huang S, Terstappen LWMM. Lymphoid and myeloid differentiation of single human CD34+, HLA-DR+, CD38 hematopoietic stem cells. Blood 1994; 83: 15151526.
  • 35
    Petzer AL, Hogge DE, Landsdorp PM, et al. Self-renewal of primitive human hematopoietic cells (long-term-culture-initiating cells) in vitro and their expansion in defined medium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 14701474.
  • 36
    Hao QL, Thiemann FT, Petersen D, et al. Extended long-term culture reveals a highly quiescent and primitive human hematopoietic progenitor population. Blood 1996; 88: 33063313.
  • 37
    Engelhardt M, Douville J, Behringer D, et al. Hematopoietic recovery of ex vivo perfusion culture expanded bone marrow and unexpanded peripheral blood progenitors after myeloablative chemotherapy. Bone Marrow Transplant 2001; 27: 249259.
  • 38
    Fujisaki T, Berger MG, Rose-John S, et al. Rapid differentiation of a rare subset of adult human LinCD34CD38 cells stimulated by multiple growth factors in vitro. Blood 1999; 94: 19261932.
  • 39
    Nakamura Y, Ando K, Chargui J, et al. Ex vivo generation of CD34+ cells from CD34 hematopoietic cells. Blood 1999; 94: 40534059.
  • 40
    Zanjani ED, Almeida-Porada G, Livingston AG, et al. Reversible expression of CD34 by adult human bone marrow long-term engrafting cells in vivo. Blood 2001; 98: 294a.
  • 41
    Gallacher L, Murdoch B, Wu DM, et al. Isolation and characterization of human CD34Lin and CD34+Lin hematopoietic stem cells using cell surface markers AC133 and CD7. Blood 2000; 95: 28132820.
  • 42
    Adolfsson J, Borge OJ, Bryder D, et al. Upregulation of Flt3 expression within the bone marrow LinSca1+c-kit+ stem cell compartment is accompanied by loss of self-renewal capacity. Immunity 2001; 15: 659669.
  • 43
    Christensen JL, Weissman IL. Flk-2 is a marker in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation: a simple method to isolate long-term stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 1454114546.
  • 44
    Gussoni E, Soneoka Y, Strickland CD, et al. Dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse restored by stem cell transplantation. Nature 1999; 401: 390394.
  • 45
    Jackson KA, Mi T, Goodell MA. Hematopoietic potential of stem cells isolated from murine skeletal muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 1448214486.
  • 46
    Guo Y, Follo M, Geiger K, et al. Side population (SP) cells from different precursor compartments have distinct stem cell potential. J Hematother Stem Cell Res 2003 (in press).
  • 47
    Engelhardt M, Lübbert M, Guo Y. CD34+ or CD34: which is the more primitive? Leukemia 2002; 16: 16031608.
  • 48
    Storms RW, Goodell MA, Fisher A, et al. Hoechst dye efflux reveals a novel CD7+CD34 lymphoid progenitor in human umbilical cord blood. Blood 2000; 96: 21252133.
  • 49
    Uchida N, Fujisaki T, Eaves AC, et al. Transplantable hematopoietic stem cells in human fetal liver have a CD34(+) side population (SP) phenotype. J Clin Invest 2001; 108: 10711077.
  • 50
    Bunting KD, Zhou S, Lu T, et al. Enforced P-glycoprotein pump function in murine bone marrow cells results in expansion of side population stem cells in vitro and repopulating cells in vivo. Blood 2000; 96: 902909.
  • 51
    Zhou S, Schuetz JD, Bunting KD, et al. The ABC transporter Bcrp1/ABCG2 is expressed in a wide variety of stem cells and is a molecular determinant of the side-population phenotype. Nat Med 2001; 7: 10281034.
  • 52
    Scharenberg CW, Harkey MA, Torok-Storb B. The ABCG2 transporter is an efficient Hoechst 33342 efflux pump and is preferentially expressed by immature human hematopoietic progenitors. Blood 2002; 99: 507512.