A boom–bust phylum? Ecological and evolutionary consequences of density variations in echinoderms


  • Corresponding Editor: P. K. Dayton.


Echinoderms play a key role in structuring many marine ecosystems and are notorious for large population density variations in so-called “outbreak” or “dieoff” events. In a review of this phenomenon, we assess the causal factors and ecological and evolutionary consequences. We identified 28 species (6 Asteroidea, 8 Echinoidea, 10 Holothuroidea, 4 Ophiuroidea) that exhibit large (more than two population doublings or halvings) population density changes. Three generalized patterns were identified and named for exemplary species: (1) rapid decreases followed by no or slow recovery (Diadema–Paracentrotus Model), (2), rapid increase and apparent stability at a new population density (Amperima–Amphiura Model), and (3) population density fluctuations (Acanthaster–Asterias Model). Echinoderms identified were distributed from the shallow intertidal to the deep sea, and from tropical to temperate regions. In most cases, significant impacts on the respective ecosystems were observed. The most striking similarity among all species identified was possession of the ancestral-type planktotrophic larva. This larval type was significantly overrepresented in species identified within the Asteroidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea, and for the combined data set. We suggest three main factors that render a life history with planktotrophic larvae a high-risk–high-gain strategy: (1) a strong nonlinear dependency of larval production on adult densities (Allee effects), (2) a low potential for compensatory feedback mechanisms, and (3) an uncoupling of larval and adult ecology. The alternative (derived) lecithotrophic larva occurs in 68% of recent echinoderm species, suggesting an evolutionary trend toward this larval type. Lecithotrophic development represents a more buffered life history because compensatory feedback between adult densities and larval output is likely to be more efficient. For lecithotrophic developers, direct nutritive coupling from adult to larva to the early benthic juvenile provides a buffer against starvation. Lecithotrophic larvae are independent of the vagaries of planktonic food supply, and their short planktonic duration may promote local recruitment. Anthropogenic influences contributed to the population density variations in most cases, including increased primary productivity through eutrophication or global change, disease, overfishing, and species introductions. We suggest that anthropogenic disturbance, through its influence on the frequency and/or amplitude of echinoderm population density changes, may go beyond present ecosystem impacts and alter future evolutionary trends.