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Reproductive effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) during a controlled exposure study

Authors

  • Jordan N. Smith,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA
    • Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA
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  • Xiaoping Pan,

    1. Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA
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  • Angella Gentles,

    1. Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA
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  • Ernest E. Smith,

    1. Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA
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  • Stephen B. Cox,

    1. Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA
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  • George P. Cobb

    1. Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA
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Abstract

Contamination with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive [RDX]) has been identified at areas of explosive manufacturing, processing, storage, and usage. Thus, the potential exists for exposure to N-nitroso compounds, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), formed via anaerobic transformation of RDX. Following exposure, reproductive toxicity of TNX was evaluated in three consecutive litters of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine was administered ad libitum via drinking water at four doses: 0 (control), 1, 10, and 100 μg/L. Endpoints investigated included reproductive success, offspring survival, offspring weight gain, offspring organ weights, and liver TNX residues. Data from the present study indicate that TNX bioaccumulates in the liver and is associated with postpartum mortality, dose-dependent decrease in body weight from birth to weaning, and decrease in kidney weight of deer mice offspring.

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