Tests were conducted with mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina) to evaluate the influence of salinity and organic carbon on the chronic toxicity of silver. During 7- and 28-d tests conducted at 10, 20, and 30‰ salinity, higher concentrations of dissolved silver generally were required to cause a chronic effect as the salinity of the seawater was increased. The 28-d mysid and silverside 20%-effective concentration values (expressed as dissolved silver) ranged from 3.9 to 60 and from 38 to 170 μg/L, respectively, over the salinity range. This pattern was not observed when the same test results were evaluated against the concentrations of free ionic silver (measured directly during toxicity tests), as predicted by the free-ion activity model. Increasing the concentration of dissolved organic carbon from 1 mg/L to the apparent maximum achievable concentration of 6 mg/L in seawater caused a slight decrease in chronic toxicity to silversides but had no effect on the chronic toxicity to mysids. The possible additive toxicity of silver in both food and water also was investigated. Even at the maximum achievable foodborne concentration, the chronic toxicity of silver added to the water was not affected when silver was also added to the food, based on the most sensitive endpoint (growth). However, although fecundity was unaffected at all five tested concentrations during the test with silver in water only, it was significantly reduced at the two highest waterborne silver concentrations (12 and 24 μg/L) during the test with silver dosed into food and water.
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