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Effects of pesticides on soil invertebrates in model ecosystem and field studies: A review and comparison with laboratory toxicity data

Authors

  • Stephan Jänsch,

    Corresponding author
    1. ECT Oekotoxikologie, Böttgerstraße 2-14, D-65439 Flörsheim, Germany
    • ECT Oekotoxikologie, Böttgerstraße 2-14, D-65439 Flörsheim, Germany
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  • Geoff K. Frampton,

    1. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX, United Kingdom
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  • Jörg Römbke,

    1. ECT Oekotoxikologie, Böttgerstraße 2-14, D-65439 Flörsheim, Germany
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  • Paul J. van den Brink,

    1. Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
    2. Wageningen University, Department of Aquatic Ecology andpe Water Quality Management, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD Wageningen, The Netherlands
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  • Janeck J. Scott-Fordsmand

    1. Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environment Research Institute, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
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Abstract

A systematic review was carried out to investigate the extent to which higher-tier (terrestrial model ecosystem [TME] and field) data regarding pesticide effects can be compared with laboratory toxicity data for soil invertebrates. Data in the public domain yielded 970 toxicity endpoint data sets, representing 71 pesticides and 42 soil invertebrate species or groups. For most pesticides, the most frequent effect class was for no observed effects, although relatively high numbers of pronounced and persistent effects occurred when Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae were exposed to fungicides and when Lumbricidae, Collembola, and Arachnida were exposed to insecticides. No effects of fungicides on Arachnida, Formicidae, or Nematoda or of herbicides on Lumbricidae, Formicidae, or Nematoda were observed in any studies. For most pesticides, higher-tier no-observed-effect concentration or lowest-observed-effect concentration values cannot be determined because of a lack of information at low pesticide concentrations. Ten pesticides had sufficient laboratory data to enable the observed higher-tier effects to be compared with 5% hazardous concentrations (HC5) estimated from acute toxicity laboratory data (atrazine, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, γ-hexachlorocy-clohexane, lambda-cyhalothrin, parathion, pentachlorophenol, and propoxur). In eight cases, higher-tier effects concentrations were within or below the 90% confidence interval of the HC5. Good agreement exists between the results of TME and field tests for carbendazim, but insufficient information is available for a comparison between TME and field studies for other pesticides. Availability and characteristics (e.g., taxonomic composition and heterogeneity) of the higher-tier effects data are discussed in terms of possible developments in risk assessment procedures.

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