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Perfluorinated compounds in streams of the Shihwa industrial zone and Lake Shihwa, South Korea

Authors

  • Pawel Rostkowski,

    1. Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, Poland
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  • Nobuyoshi Yamashita,

    1. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, EMTECH, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan
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  • Iris Man Ka So,

    1. Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, China
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  • Sachi Taniyasu,

    1. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, EMTECH, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan
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  • Paul Kwan Sing Lam,

    1. Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, China
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  • Jerzy Falandysz,

    1. Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, Poland
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  • Kyu Tae Lee,

    1. Institute of Environmental Protection and Safety, NeoEnBiz Co. Rm 904, Byuksan Digital Valley II, Gasan dong 481-10, Geumcheon gu, Seoul, Korea
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  • Seung Kyu Kim,

    1. Institute of Environmental Protection and Safety, NeoEnBiz Co. Rm 904, Byuksan Digital Valley II, Gasan dong 481-10, Geumcheon gu, Seoul, Korea
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  • Jong Seong Khim,

    1. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (Oceanography), College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
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  • Sook Hyeon Im,

    1. DK Science R&D Center, Gongduck-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-020, Korea
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  • John L. Newsted,

    1. ENTRIX, 4295 Okemos Road, Suit 101, Okemos, Michigan 48864, USA
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  • Paul D. Jones,

    1. Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
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  • Kurunthachalam Kannan,

    1. Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health and Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA
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  • John P. Giesy

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, China
    2. Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Current affiliation:
    1. The current address of J.P. Giesy is Zoology Department, 203 Natural Science Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    • Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, China
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Abstract

Concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate, perfluorobutanesulfonate, perfluorooctanesulfonamide, perfluorodecanoate, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoate, and perfluorohexanoate, were measured in the streams of the Shihwa and Banweol industrial areas on the west coast of South Korea as well as the adjacent Lake Shihwa (an artificial lake) and Gyeonggi Bay. Perfluorinated alkyl compounds were concentrated from water using solid-phase extraction and were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography/triple-quadrapole tandem mass spectrometry. Of the PFAs measured, PFOS and PFOA occurred at the greatest concentrations. Concentrations of PFOS ranged from 2.24 to 651 ng/L, and concentrations of PFOA ranged from 0.9 to 62 ng/L. The concentrations of PFOS observed in Lake Shihwa were among the greatest ever measured in the environment. These results suggest local industrial sources of PFOS and PFOA as well as other PFAs. Because of dilution, the greatest concentrations occur in a rather restricted area, near the points of discharge of the streams that empty into the lake. The greatest measured concentration of PFOS exceeded the threshold for effects predicted for predatory birds consuming aquatic organisms continuously exposed to this level.

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