Developmental toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after exposure to manufactured nanomaterials: Buckminsterfullerene aggregates (nC60) and fullerol

Authors

  • Xiaoshan Zhu,

    1. College of Environmental Science&Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
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  • Lin Zhu,

    1. College of Environmental Science&Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    2. Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Tianjin 300457, China
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  • Yan Li,

    1. College of Environmental Science&Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
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  • Zhenghua Duan,

    1. College of Environmental Science&Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
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  • Wei Chen,

    1. College of Environmental Science&Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    2. Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Tianjin 300457, China
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  • Pedro J.J. Alvarez

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, MS 317, RO. Box 1892, Houston, Texas 77251–1892, USA
    • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, MS 317, RO. Box 1892, Houston, Texas 77251–1892, USA
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Abstract

The present paper summarizes, to our knowledge, the first study regarding the developmental toxicity of stable buck-minsterfullerene aggregates suspended in water (nC60) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model. Zebrafish embryo survival, hatching rate, heartbeat, and pericardial edema were noted and described within 96 h of exposure. Fullerol (a hydroxylated C60 derivative, C60(OH)16–18) at 50 mg/L did not exert toxicity to zebrafish embryos. In contrast, nC60 at 1.5 mg/L delayed zebrafish embryo and larval development, decreased survival and hatching rates, and caused pericardial edema. Toxicity was mitigated by adding an antioxidant (glutathione), which suggests that a free radical—induced mechanism or another form of oxidative stress played a role in developmental toxicity.

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