Published on the Web 6/11/2008.
Nanomaterials in the environment: Behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects†
Article first published online: 9 DEC 2009
Copyright © 2008 SETAC
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume 27, Issue 9, pages 1825–1851, September 2008
How to Cite
Klaine, S. J., Alvarez, P. J. J., Batley, G. E., Fernandes, T. F., Handy, R. D., Lyon, D. Y., Mahendra, S., McLaughlin, M. J. and Lead, J. R. (2008), Nanomaterials in the environment: Behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27: 1825–1851. doi: 10.1897/08-090.1
- Issue published online: 9 DEC 2009
- Article first published online: 9 DEC 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 MAY 2008
- Manuscript Received: 28 FEB 2008
Vol. 31, Issue 12, 2893, Article first published online: 16 NOV 2012
- Plant uptake;
- Ecological risk
The recent advances in nanotechnology and the corresponding increase in the use of nanomaterials in products in every sector of society have resulted in uncertainties regarding environmental impacts. The objectives of this review are to introduce the key aspects pertaining to nanomaterials in the environment and to discuss what is known concerning their fate, behavior, disposition, and toxicity, with a particular focus on those that make up manufactured nanomaterials. This review critiques existing nanomaterial research in freshwater, marine, and soil environments. It illustrates the paucity of existing research and demonstrates the need for additional research. Environmental scientists are encouraged to base this research on existing studies on colloidal behavior and toxicology. The need for standard reference and testing materials as well as methodology for suspension preparation and testing is also discussed.