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Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds

Authors

  • Anne M. Condon,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, The College of William and Mary, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187–8795, USA
    Current affiliation:
    1. The current address of A. Condon is U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Virginia Field Office, 6669 Short Lane, Gloucester, Virginia 23061, USA
    • Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, The College of William and Mary, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187–8795, USA
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  • Daniel A. Cristol

    1. Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, The College of William and Mary, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187–8795, USA
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Abstract

Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 ± 0.06 mg/kg [mean ± standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 ± 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 ± 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 ± 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

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