• 1
    Elder RL. 1984. Final report on the safety assessment of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. J Am Coll Toxicol 3: 147209.
  • 2
    European Cosmetic Directive. 2007. Cosmetic Directive 76/768/ EEC. Council Directive. Annex VI, Part 1. 1976L0768-EN-19.09.2007–018.002. European Commission. Brussels, Belgium.
  • 3
    Federal Register. 2004. Code of Federal Regulations. Fed Reg 21:184.1490.
  • 4
    Federal Register. 2004. Code of Federal Regulations. Fed Reg 21:184.1670.
  • 5
    Boehm EE, Maddox DN. 1972. Recent applications for preservatives of pharmaceuticals. Manufacturing Chemist and Aerosol News 43: 2123.
  • 6
    Soni MG, Carabin IG, Burdock GA. 2005. Safety assessment of esters ofp-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens). Food Chem Toxicol 43: 9851015.
  • 7
    Lee HB, Peart TE, Svoboda ML. 2005. Determination of endocrine-disrupting phenols, acidic pharmaceuticals, and personal-care products in sewage by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1094: 122129.
  • 8
    Benijts T, Lambert W, De Leenheer A. 2004. Analysis of multiple endocrine disruptors in environmental waters via wide-spectrum solid-phase extraction and dual-polarity ionization LC-ion trap MS/MS. Anal Chem 76: 704711.
  • 9
    Darbre PD, Aljarrah A, Miller WR, Coldham NG, Sauer MJ, Pope GS. 2004. Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumors. J Appl Toxicol 24: 513.
  • 10
    Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ. 2008. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK. Water Res 42: 34983518.
  • 11
    Carlsson C, Johansson AK, Alvan G, Berman K, Kuhler T. 2006. Are pharmaceuticals potent environmental pollutants? Part II: Environmental risk assessments of selected pharmaceutical excipients. Sci Total Environ 364: 8895.
  • 12
    Kamaya Y, Tsuboi S, Takada T, Suzuki K. 2006. Growth stimulation and inhibition effects of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and some related compounds on the freshwater green algaPseudo-kirchneriella subcapitata. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 51: 537541.
  • 13
    Eklund T. 1980. Inhibition of growth and uptake processes in bacteria by some chemical food preservatives. J Appl Bacteriol 48: 423432.
  • 14
    Okada F, Kobayashi A, Fujiwara N, Arimoto N, Takahashi K. 1999. Calorimetric analysis of antimicrobial effect ofp-hydroxybenzoic acid alkyl esters. Biocontrol Sci 4: 6773.
  • 15
    Routledge EJ, Parker J, Odum J, Ashby J, Sumpter JP. 1998. Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic. Toxicol Appl Pharm 153: 1219.
  • 16
    Okubo T, Yokoyama Y, Kano K, Kano I. 2001. ER-dependent estrogenic activity of parabens assessed by proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and expression of ERα and PR. Food Chem Toxicol 39: 12251232.
  • 17
    Darbre PD, Byford JR, Shaw LE, Horton RA, Pope GS, Sauer MJ. 2002. Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo. J Appl Toxicol 22: 219226.
  • 18
    Darbre PD, Byford JR, Shaw LE, Hall S, Coldham NG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ. 2003. Oestrogenic activity of benzylparaben. J Appl Toxicol 23: 4351.
  • 19
    Byford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MGB, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD. 2002. Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem 80: 4960.
  • 20
    Inui M, Adachi T, Takenaka S, Inui H, Nakazawa M, Ueda M, Watanabe H, Mori C, Igistuchi T, Miyatake K. 2003. Effect of UV screens and preservatives on vitellogenin and choriogenin production in male medaka(Oryzias latipes). Toxicology 194: 4350.
  • 21
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms, 5th ed. EPA-821-R-02–012. Office of Water, Washington, DC.
  • 22
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms, 4th ed. EPA-821-R-02–013. Office of Water, Washington, DC.
  • 23
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. 10-day chronic toxicity test using Daphnia magna or Daphnia pulex. SOP 2028. Environmental Response Team. Compendium of ERT Standard Operating Protocols. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Edison, NJ.
  • 24
    Dzialowski EM, Turner PK, Brooks BW. 2006. Physiological and reproductive effects of beta adrenergic receptor antagonists on Daphnia magna. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50: 503510.
  • 25
    Stanley JK, Ramirez AJ, Mottaleb M, Chambliss CK, Brooks BW. 2006. Enantio-specific toxicity of the β-blocker propranolol to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas. Environ Toxicol Chem 25: 17801786.
  • 26
    Clubbs RL, Brooks BW. 2007. Daphnia magna responses to a vertebrate estrogen receptor agonist and an antagonist: A multigenerational study. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 67: 385398.
  • 27
    Hemming JM, Turner PK, Brooks BW, Waller WT, La Point TW. 2002. Assessment of toxicity reduction in wastewater effluent flowing through a treatment wetland using Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Vibrio fischeri. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 42: 916.
  • 28
    Knight JT, Waller WT. 1992. Influence of the addition of Cerophyl® in the Selenastrum capricornutum diet of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environ Toxicol Chem 11: 521534.
  • 29
    Canosa P, Rodriguez I, Rubi E, Negreira N, Cela R. 2006. Formation of halogenated by-products of parabens in chlorinated water. Anal Chim Acta 575: 106113.
  • 30
    Burmaster DE, Hull DA. 1997. Using lognormal distributions and lognormal probability plots in probabilistic risk assessments. Human Ecol Risk Assess 3: 235255.
  • 31
    Solomon K, Giesy J, Jones P. 2000. Probabilistic risk assessment of agrochemicals in the environment. Crop Prot 19: 649655.
  • 32
    Dobbins LL, Brain RA, Brooks BW. 2008. Comparison of the sensitivities of common in vitro and in vivo assays of estrogenic activity: Application of chemical toxicity distributions. Environ Toxicol Chem 27: 26082616.
  • 33
    Brain RA, Sanderson H, Sibley PK, Solomon KR. 2006. Probabilistic ecological hazard assessment: Evaluating pharmaceutical effects on aquatic higher plants as an example. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 64: 128135.
  • 34
    Van Wezel AP, Opperhuizen A. 1995. Narcosis due to environmental pollutants in aquatic organisms: Residue-based toxicity, mechanisms, and membrane burdens. Crit Rev Toxicol 25: 255279.
  • 35
    Sandermann H. 2008. Ecotoxicology of narcosis: Stereoselectivity and potential target sites. Chemosphere 72: 12561259.
  • 36
    Russom CL, Bradbury SP, Broderius SJ, Hammermeister DE, Drummond RA. 1997. Predicting modes of toxic action from chemical structure: Acute toxicity in the fathead minnow(Pimephales promelas). Environ Toxicol Chem 16: 984967.
  • 37
    Angelov T, Vlasenko A, Tashkov W. 2008. HPLC determination of pKa of parabens and investigation on their lipophilicity parameters. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 31: 188197.
  • 38
    Rastogi SC, Schouten A, De Kruijf N, Weijland JW. 1995. Contents of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl- and benzylparaben in cosmetic products. Contact Dermatitis 32: 2830.
  • 39
    Dymicky M, Huhtanen CN. 1979. Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum byp-hydroxybenzoic acid n-alkyl esters. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 15: 798801.
  • 40
    Orvos DR, Versteeg DJ, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothernstein A, Cunningham V. 2002. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan. Environ Toxicol Chem 21: 13381349.
  • 41
    Wollenberger L, Halling-Sorensen B, Kusk KO. 2000. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 40: 723730.
  • 42
    Isidori M, Lavorgna M, Nardelli A, Pascarella L, Parrella A. 2005. Toxic and genotoxic evaluation of six antibiotics on non-target organisms. Sci Total Environ 346: 8798.
  • 43
    Kim Y, Choi K, Jung J, Park S, Kim P, Park J. 2007. Aquatic toxicity of acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, diltiazem and six major sulfonamides, and their ecological risks in Korea. Environ Int 33: 370375.
  • 44
    Larsson DGJ, de Pedro C, Paxeus N. 2007. Effluent from drug manufactures contain extremely high levels of pharmaceuticals. J Hazard Mater 148: 751755.
  • 45
    Bjerregaard P, Hansen PR, Larsen KJ, Erratico C, Korsgaard B, Holbech H. 2008. Vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effects in brown trout, Salmo trutta: Laboratory and field investigations. Environ Toxicol Chem 27: 23872396.
  • 46
    Brooks BW, Riley TM, Taylor RD. 2006. Water quality of effluent-dominated stream ecosystems: Ecotoxicological, hydro-logical, and management considerations. Hydrobiologia 556: 365379.
  • 47
    Hansch C, Leo A, Hoekman D. 1995. Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
  • 48
    Yalkowsky SH, Dannenfelser RM. 1992. AQUASOL Database of Aqueous Solubility, 5th ed. University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy, Tucson, AZ, USA.