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Evaluation of dicloran's contribution to the mutagenic activity of Cristais river, Brazil, water samples

Authors

  • Danielle Palma de Oliveira,

    1. Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas (USP), Faculdade de Ciěncias Farmacěuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903, Brazil
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  • Maureen Sakagami,

    1. Companhia de Saneamento Básico de São Paulo (SABESP), R. Conselheiro Saraiva, 519, São Paulo 02037-900, Brazil
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  • Sarah Warren,

    Corresponding author
    1. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mail Drop B143-06, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    • Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mail Drop B143-06, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
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  • Fábio Kummrow,

    1. Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas (UNIFAL-MG), R. Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, Alfenas, Minas Gerais 37130-000, Brazil
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  • Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro

    1. Divisão de Toxicologia, Genotoxicidade e Microbiologia Ambiental da Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Avenida Prof. Frederico Hermann Jr., 345, São Paulo 05459-900, Brazil
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Abstract

2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroaniline (dicloran) is a mutagenic aromatic amine used as an agricultural fungicide and in the synthesis of disperse dyes. It is a known mutagen (Salmonella/microsome assay) in strains TA98 and TA100. Dicloran was initially detected, but not quantified, in the Cristais River, Brazil. The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of dicloran to mutagenic activity in samples from this river. Dicloran was found in the raw water at 0.14 μg/L but not in the treated water. Comparison of mutagenic potencies in Salmonella strain YG1041 for dicloran and the river water sample indicated that dicloran contributed less than 0.1% of total mutagenic activity.

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