How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?
Article first published online: 5 NOV 2009
Copyright © 2005 SETAC
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Volume 1, Issue 2, pages 109–113, April 2005
How to Cite
Stark, J. D. (2005), How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?. Integr Environ Assess Manag, 1: 109–113. doi: 10.1897/IEAM_2004-002r.1
- Issue published online: 5 NOV 2009
- Article first published online: 5 NOV 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 OCT 2004
- Manuscript Received: 24 MAY 2004
- Risk assessment;
- Population growth;
Acute lethal dose/concentration estimates are the most widely used measure of toxicity and these data often are used in ecological risk assessment. However, the value of the lethal concentration (LC50) as a toxicological endpoint for use in ecological risk assessment recently has been criticized. A question that has been asked frequently is how accurate is the LC50 for prediction of longer-term effects of toxicants on populations of organisms? To answer this question, Daphnia pulex populations were exposed to nominal concentrations equal to the 48-h acute LC50 of 6 insecticides, Actara, Aphistar diazinon, pymetrozine, Neemix, and Spinosad; and 8 agricultural adjuvants, Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet, Sylgard 309, Water Maxx, and X-77; for 10 d. None of the D. pulex populations exposed to the acute LC50 of these insecticides were 50% lower than the control populations at the end of the study; exposure to diazinon resulted in populations that were higher than expected (91% of the control). Exposure to Actara and Aphistar resulted in populations that were <1 and 29% of the control, respectively. Exposure to Fulfill, Neemix, and Spinosad resulted in extinction. Extinction occurred after exposure to all of the adjuvants, except Silwet L-77 where the population was 31% of the control. These results corroborate other studies that indicate that the LC50 is not a good predictor of effects on population growth. Although lethal concentration estimates have their place in toxicology, namely to compare intrinsic toxicity of chemicals among species or susceptibility of a species to different chemicals over short time periods, population growth and growth-rate studies are necessary to predict toxicant effects on populations.