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Keywords:

  • negative reinforcement;
  • differential negative reinforcement;
  • self-injury;
  • escape-maintained behavior

This study compared the effectiveness of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO) and alternative behavior (DNRA) for reducing self-injurious tantrums maintained by escape from demands in a 4-year-old girl with severe retardation. Both DNRA and DNRO reduced self-injury and increased independent performance of two tasks (tooth brushing and bathing); however, improvement on both measures was greater with the DNRA intervention.