• Androgen receptor;
  • GGN repeat;
  • male infertility;
  • semen abnormality

ABSTRACT: Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), play a role in secondary sexual differentiation from the prenatal stage to adulthood, including spermatogenesis. The AR gene has 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG and GGN) in exon 1. The CAG repeat length polymorphism has been well studied in a variety of medical conditions, including male infertility. Many of these studies have shown an association of the expanded CAG repeats with male infertility, although this is not true for all populations. The GGN repeat, in contrast, has been less thoroughly studied. Thus far, only 4 reports worldwide have analyzed the GGN repeat, alone or in combination with the CAG repeat, in male infertility cases. No such study has been undertaken on infertile Indian men. Therefore, we have analyzed AR-GGN repeats in a total of 595 Indian males, including 277 azoospemric, 97 oligozoospermic, and 21 oligoteratozoospermic cases, along with 200 normozoospermic controls. The analysis revealed no difference in the mean number or the range of the repeat between cases (mean = 21.51 repeats, range 15–26 repeats) and controls (mean 21.58 repeats, range 15–26 repeats). Furthermore, no difference was observed when azoospermic (mean = 21.53 repeats, range 15–26 repeats), oligozoospermic (mean = 21.46 repeats, range 15–26 repeats), and oligoteratozoospermic cases (mean = 21.48, range 19–26 repeats) were compared individually with the controls.