ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent, affecting more than 47 million US residents. This condition is also multifaceted, potentially leading to significant disturbance of numerous physiologic processes. This review article evaluates the literature regarding metabolic syndrome and male reproductive health. Links between obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance are each examined with regard to their associated detrimental effects on male fertility. At the end of this manuscript, we propose a new MetS/male infertility paradigm. Additional studies specifically addressing the components of MetS and their impact on male reproduction will enhance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. These studies may also help clarify the role for therapeutic intervention.