ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the seminal vesicles (SV) of infertile patients with diabetes and neuropathy, and possible changes in relation to duration of diabetes. Sixty infertile patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic neuropathy were selected. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to duration of diabetes (group A ≤5 years, group B between 5 and 15 years, and group C ≥15 years). A pathological control group of 20 infertile patients without diabetes and a real control group of 20 healthy fertile men were selected and compared. Patients underwent prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasonography and sperm analysis. The following ultrasound parameters were recorded: 1) body anteroposterior diameter (APD); 2) fundus APD; 3) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; 4) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs; 5) fundus-to-body ratio; 6) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SVs; and 7) pre-ejaculatory and postejaculatory APD difference. All patients with diabetes had a significantly (P < .05) higher fundus-to-body ratio compared with controls. Group C had a significantly (P < .05) higher fundus-to-body ratio compared with other diabetes groups. There was no significant difference (P > .05) relative to the number of polycyclic areas in patients with diabetes and controls. All patients with diabetes had a significantly lower (P < .05) preejaculatory and postejaculatory difference in body SV APD compared with controls. Group A and group B had a similar preejaculatory and postejaculatory difference in body SV APD, whereas this difference was significantly (P < .05) lower in group C. In conclusion, infertile patients with diabetes and neuropathy have peculiar SV ultrasound features suggestive of functional atony, and duration of disease is associated with worse changes in ultrasound findings.