• Competition;
  • Diversity;
  • Emergence;
  • Gap;
  • Mesobrometum;
  • Moss cover;
  • Nurse-plant;
  • Seed size
  • Binz & Heitz (1986) for vascular plants;
  • Frahm & Frey (1983) for mosses

Abstract. Influences of neighbouring plants on seedling establishment of six dicotyledonous species was investigated in a nutrient-poor limestone grassland (Mesobrometum) in northern Switzerland. Microsites with different vegetational structure were created and seeds sown in them. The fate of emerging seedlings was followed for one or two years. A plant surviving its first growing season was regarded as established.

Shelter by neighbouring plants appeared to be necessary for the establishment of Arabis hirsuta and Primula veris. Because of drought and frost heave, hardly any seedlings of these species established in gaps (4 - 21 %). In microsites with vegetation, their survival was significantly higher (40–57 %). Neighbouring plants slightly reduced the survival of Plantago lanceolata and Sanguisorba minor, but these species established well both in gaps (74 - 81 %) and in vegetated microsites (54 - 67 %). Medicago lupulina established well in all microsites in one year (71 - 79 %), but poorly in the next year (18–32 %). Linum catharticum emerged poorly in one year and was completely extinguished by a fungal pathogen the following year.

The overall conclusion is, that gaps are of minor importance for recruitment of these species in this grassland. Physical hazards and pathogens control seedling establishment to a greater extent than competition by neighbouring plants. Some species are hardly able to establish without shelter of vegetation. Seed size is an important factor for success of establishment, especially in gaps. It is suggested, that the relatively low productivity and the absence of litter accumulation (due to mowing and biomass removal) are important conditions for the observed behaviour of the seedlings and juvenile plants in this community.