Abstract. The recruitment of the relict shrub Juniperus communis on a mountain in SE Spain was studied during the period 1994–1998. The main objective was to determine both the quantitative and qualitative effects of bird dispersal on seedling establishment. Seed removal by birds, seed rain, post-dispersal seed predation, germination, and seedling emergence and survival were analysed in different microhabitats. Birds removed 53 - 89% of the seeds produced by plants. Seed rain was spatially irregular as most seeds accumulated near stones used by birds as perches and below mother plants while a few seeds were dropped in wet meadows and open ground areas. Post-dispersal seed predation by rodents affected < 10% of dispersed seeds but varied significantly among microhabitats. Only 3.6 - 5.5% of dispersed seeds appeared viable, as many seeds had aborted or showed wasp damage. Seeds germinated in the second and third springs after sowing, reaching a germination percentage of 36%. Seedling emergence was concentrated in wet meadows. Seedling mortality was high (75–80%), but significantly lower in wet meadows, the only microhabitat where seedlings could escape from summer drought, the main mortality cause. Seed abortion, germination and seedling mortality proved to be the main regeneration constraints of J. communis on Mediterranean mountains. Birds exerted a strong demographic effect, although their qualitative effect was limited by abiotic factors which caused the pattern of seed rain to differ from the final pattern of recruitment between microhabitats.