The Offensive-Defensive Distinction in Military Biological Research


  • Michael E. Frisina

    Search for more papers by this author
    • Michael E. Frisina is a major, United States Army, and assistant professor of philosophy at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY. The views, opinions, and ideas expressed in this paper are not those officially reflected by the United States Military Academy, the United States Army, or the Department of Defense.


Should medical researchers not participate in military biological research? The argument for “no participation” falsely assumes there is no practical and moral distinction between offensive and defensive military biological research.